'' Beast from Muscovy '': Scottish royalist in the service of the Tsar

The 17th century was a great epoch. Cavalier culture, high, but still lacking that baroque pretense. Selfless wars, the rise of some empires and the fall of others. It is about the hero of those times, about the Scottish royalist who fought first against the rioters-regicides, to a man whose head was assigned a special award, and then noted in the Russian service, having managed to defeat the war with the Poles and Swedes, and today we will speak.

Thomas Daleil came from an old Scottish noble family, and was born in 1599 year in the family estate of his father Binns, near the town of Linlithgow, in West Lothian. As befits a nobleman, he entered the military service, and received his baptism of fire in the corps of the Duke of Buckingham, sent to help besieged La Rochelle in 1627 year. Despite the help of the British, the next year the fortress fell, and Daleil was later destined to take part in military battles only 14 years later, fighting against the rebel Irish Catholics as part of the army of Major General Robert Monroe in Ulster. After the end of the war in 1649, he was appointed commandant of the local fortress Carrickfergus, but soon an event occurred that shook him to the ground and changed his whole future life.

30 January 1649 in London was beheaded by the king of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charles I Stewart. Earlier, he was tried in court, sentenced him to death, for, in fact, preventing the House of Commons from obtaining absolute power. The sovereign of the Three Kingdoms was executed in Whitehall, in full view of the assembled crowd. But even then, the executioner never dared to say the words "here's the head of a traitor", traditional for the execution of the traitors and the enemies of the state, and the crowd gathered in shock. This has never happened before. Even after the execution, the respect for the former monarch was so great that his head was sewn back to the body, so that the relatives would have the opportunity to say goodbye to him and bury him.

Charles I

Europe, unlike the 144 situation a year later, did not really respond to it. This is understandable: the bloodiest Thirty Years War was still going on, and all the major continental powers, except perhaps for Russia, were, to put it mildly, not up to England. A convinced monarchist, Daleil, as a sign of sorrow, made a vow never to cut his beard, and since then he has not broken it even once.

Soon the army of Monroe was defeated, and Daleil with the remnants of his troops returned to their homeland. In 1650, he joined Karl II Stuart, the son of the executed monarch, who gathered his supporters to fight Cromwell. In the bloody battle of Worcester 3 September 1651, he commanded one of the three infantry regiments that were in the vanguard of the royalist army, covering the crossings of the Tin and Severn rivers. But then the army of the king was not destined to win. The royalists were defeated, and Daleil was captured while imprisoned in the Tower, from where, however, he was able to escape and cross over to the Netherlands, where by then the legal king was located. For loyalty to the house of the Stuarts, Daleil was promoted to major general.

However, he soon had to return to Albion - in January, 1654, he, along with General William Drummond, went to Scotland to prepare for the anti-Romeo uprising. The mountaineers fought with the troops established by Cromwell Commonwealth (Commonwealth of England, later Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland) under the leadership of General Monk, who appointed even the award for the head of our hero, but lost again, after which Daleil was for the second time forced to flee to Continent .

William Drummond

Apparently, the old warrior, a simple, discreet secular life in the emigration tired, and therefore already in 1656, with his mountain war comrade General Drummond and with a letter of recommendation from the king, asking them to take these "very skilful people in the knowledge of military affairs" to the service, he went to Moscow, where he arrived 21 July of the same year.

Service in distant Russia for our hero, who became Thomas Tomasovich here, began in the war against the Swedes under the walls of Riga, where he was appointed to lead one of the regiments of the new system in the army of Prince Yakov Cherkassky. However, the siege of the fortress, largely due to the delay of the Danish allies, who could not ensure the naval blockade of the city, was not crowned with success, and therefore in 1657 – 1658 years Daleil was sent to train soldiers.

Siege of Riga in 1656 year.

In the 1659 year, when the war resumed with Poland, the regiment of Thomas was redeployed under Polotsk. And here he showed his strong-willed, cavalier nature, coming into conflict with the influential prince Ivan Khovansky, strictly speaking, and commanding the army, in which Daleyl was located.

Russian-Polish war of 1654 – 1667's.

On the night of 15 on 16 of August 1660, three drunk Reiters started a fight with a Scottish soldier on guard, as a result of which one of them was killed. Thomas Tomasovich demanded that Khovansky punish the guilty soldiers, but he refused. As a result, Daleil raised the entire regiment in alarm, told them to beat the drums and threatened the prince that he would distribute gunpowder to the soldiers and ordered to shoot at nobles and military men, and then brought his subordinates out of the city, saying that while the governor did not punish his subordinates, to the regiment there is no ''. Khovansky soon changed his mind, and hurried to punish the guilty with batogs, but he still wrote to the discharge order that “the general does not listen to me and does not go to the regiment”. On September 15, a royal decree was sent from Moscow to Polotsk to remove Daleil from the command of the regiment, but the messenger arrived too late, and circumstances had changed by that time. September 22 regiment Khovansky, numbering 5 thousands of people, launched an offensive in order to divert Polish forces from the southern theater of war, where the regiments of Prince Yuri Dolgorukov fought. However, after a successful battle near Topchine, he still found himself surrounded by twice the superior forces of Hetman Sapieha and Charnetsky near Cherea.

Stefan Charnetsky during the Polish-Russian war.

The prince decided to take up defense, and wait for the arrival of Dolgorukov's army, which had withstood the bloody battle on the Basa River, but the soldiers almost rebelled, demanding a retreat to Polotsk. Khovansky agreed, and the troops went back along the forest wetland road. Upon learning of this, the Poles sent thousands of people on horseback to 3 under the leadership of Colonels Krzysztof Sapega and Samuel Kmitich, with an assignment to tie up the enemy until the main forces approached. Polish khorugvi attacked the Russian rearguard, but Daleil was able to organize a retreat, repelling all the attacks of the enemy. In fact, taking command of all the infantry, he fought 50 versts, not allowing panic and the collapse of the detachment. The fighters of the Daleil regiment, as well as the Moscow archers Vasily Pushechnikov and Timofey Poltev, made up the core of the breakthroughs.

Russian archers XVII century

In May, Daleil broke 1661, a detachment of Lithuanian Colonel Yesman, who attempted to seize Polotsk suddenly, for which 14 of June of that year “the great sovereign indicated to the boyar and voivode Prince Ivan Andreevich Khovansky his decree to say hello to General Thomas Daleil to say hello and caress, and in military doctrine he didn’t take away his will, and he would persecute him as a general over all infantry and archers, for the sovereign knows that he serves Thomas and he cries, and military training and every military system for his custom. ”

In October of the same year, he was destined to take part in the Battle of the Kushlinkovy Mountains, unfortunately, lost by the Russian troops, after which he, however, had once again saved Polotsk.

In the year 1663, in recognition of all his achievements, Daleil was promoted to full generals and transferred to Smolensk. However, this did not mean the end of the war for him. In 1664 he had to participate in the reflection of the Great March of Jan Casimir, who was the last attempt of Poland to change the outcome of the war in his favor. And, fortunately, the attempt failed and, moreover, the Lithuanian army of Mikhail Pats, which overgrew into a catastrophic retreat.

“The retreat lasted for two weeks, and we thought we would all perish. The king himself was saved with great difficulty. There was such a great hunger that for two days I saw how there was no bread on the table at the king. The 40 of thousands of horses, all the cavalry and the entire train, and three quarters of the army without exaggeration were lost. In the history of past centuries, there is nothing that can be compared with the state of such a defeat, ”recalled Duke Antoine Gramont, who served the King.

The rider of the Polish armor cavalry. Józef Brandt, XIX century

But the forces and resources were gradually exhausted by the Russian kingdom. The war was coming to an end, and an experienced warrior who did so much for his favorable Russian end, Thomas Daleil in 1665, resigned and returned to his native Albion, where by that time the power had changed and the Stewarts, whom the general had so committed to and served. Alexey Mikhailovich satisfied the petition.

In 1666, Daleil arrived at the court of Charles II in London, and was soon appointed commander of the Scottish army to pacify newly rebel covenants (supporters of the Scottish National covenant 1638 of the year, opponents of the king in the Episcopal Wars and the War of the Three Kingdoms, known in Russia as the Civil War in England, speaking for the actual limitation of the power of the monarch). Having defeated the rioters in the Battle of Roulon Green, he became a real curse for the surviving covenanters, not without reason, considering them to be the culprits of the king’s execution, for which he received the nickname Bloody Tom and the Beast from Muscovy (!). When, in 1679, in the west of Scotland, a new covenanter uprising broke out, he, as deputy duke of Monmouth, played a decisive role in the victory at Bothwell Bridge, which in fact drew a line under the uprising.

In 1679-1685, Dallej, who has already passed the eighth decade, became a member of the Privy Council of the King and a member of parliament from Lilingshushir, and a member of the Judicial Commission for Covenant Affairs.

Thomas Thomas Daley died, at 1685, three years before the Stuart dynasty fell again, and, for once, forever, when the clouds have not yet begun to thicken again over the Three Kingdoms, having lived a long and dignified life, serving on the benefit of both native Scotland and distant Russia, becoming one of the many military specialists who reformed the Russian army along a Western system long before Peter.

Nikita Novsky

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