'' Beast from Muscovy '': Scottish royalist in the service of the Tsar

The 17th century was a great epoch. Cavalier culture, high, but still lacking that baroque pretense. Selfless wars, the rise of some empires and the fall of others. It is about the hero of those times, about the Scottish royalist who fought first against the rioters-regicides, to a man whose head was assigned a special award, and then noted in the Russian service, having managed to defeat the war with the Poles and Swedes, and today we will speak.

Thomas Dallele came from an old Scottish noble family, and was born in 1599 year in the family estate of his father Binns, which is not far from the town of Linlithgow, in West Lothian. As well as it is necessary to the nobleman, it has acted on military service, and the baptism of fire has received in the corps of the Duke Buckingham sent to the aid of besieged La Rochelle in 1627 year. Despite the help of the British, the fortress fell the following year, and in the future to participate in military battles Daleyl was fated only after 14 years, fighting against the rebelling Irish Catholics in the army of Major-General Robert Monroe in Ulster. After the end of the war in 1649, he was appointed commander of the local fortress Carrickfergus, but soon there was an event that shook him to the ground and changed his entire future life.

30 January 1649 year in London was beheaded King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charles I Stewart. Even earlier, a court was sentenced against him, sentenced him to death, for, in fact, an obstacle to the House of Commons in obtaining absolute power. The Sovereign of the Three Kingdoms was executed in Whitehall, in full view of the assembled crowd. But even then, the executioner did not dare to say the words "that's the head of the traitor", traditional when executed by traitors and enemies of the state, and the assembled crowd was in shock. Such before there was nowhere else. Even after the execution, the respect for the former monarch was so great that his head was sewn back to the body, so that the relatives could dare to say good-bye to him and bury him.

Charles I

Europe, in contrast to the situation 144 a year later, did not really respond to it. It's understandable: the bloodthirsty Thirty Years' War was still going on, and to all major continental powers, except, perhaps, Russia was, to put it mildly, not up to England. A convinced monarchist, Daleyle, as a sign of sorrow, vowed never to trim his beard, and since that time he has not broken it once.

Soon the Monroe army was defeated, and Dallejl returned to his homeland with the remnants of his troops. In 1650, he joined Charles II Stewart, the son of the executed monarch, who gathered his supporters to fight Cromwell. In the bloody battle near Wooster 3 September 1651, he commanded one of the three infantry regiments that were in the forefront of the Royalist army, covering the ferries across the rivers Tin and Severn. But then the King's army was not to be defeated. The royalists were defeated, and Dallej was captured while being imprisoned in the Tower, from where, however, he was then able to flee to the Netherlands, where the legitimate king was at that time. For loyalty to the house Stuarts Daleyle was promoted to Major-General.

However, he soon had to return to Albion - in January 1654 he, together with General William Drummond, went to Scotland to prepare an anti-Cromwell insurrection. The Highlanders fought with the troops of the Commonwealth of England (Commonwealth of England, later Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland) under the leadership of General Monk, who even awarded a reward for the head of our hero, but lost again, after which Daleyle was forced to flee the Continent for the second time .

William Drummond

Apparently, the old warrior, a simple, discreet secular life in the emigration tired, and therefore already in 1656, with his mountain war comrade General Drummond and with a letter of recommendation from the king, asking them to take these "very skilful people in the knowledge of military affairs" to the service, he went to Moscow, where he arrived 21 July of the same year.

Service in distant Russia for our hero, who became here Thomas Tomasovich, began in the war against the Swedes under the walls of Riga, where he was appointed to lead one of the regiments of the new order in the army of Prince Yakov Cherkassky. However, the siege of the fortress, largely due to the delay of the Danish allies, who could not ensure the sea blockade of the city, was unsuccessful, and therefore at 1657-1658 Dallel was sent to train soldiers.

Siege of Riga in 1656 year.

In 1659, when the war with Poland resumed, the regiment of Thomas was transferred to Polotsk. And here he showed his strong-willed, cavalier character, having come into conflict with the influential Prince Ivan Khovansky, in fact, and the commanding army, in the location of which was Daleyl.

Russian-Polish war 1654-1667 years.

On the night of 15 on 16 August 1660, three drunken reyters started a fight with Scots soldiers standing in the guard, as a result of which one of them was killed. Thomas Tomasovich demanded that Khovansky punish the guilty soldiers, but he refused. As a result, Daley raised the entire regiment by alarm, ordering them to beat the drums and threatening the prince that he would distribute gunpowder to the soldiers and order them to shoot at nobles and raytars, and then brought his subordinates out of the city saying that while the voivode would not punish their subordinates, there is no business up to the shelf ". Khovansky soon thought better of it, and hastened to punish the guilty with batogs, but nevertheless wrote in the discharge order that "the general does not listen to me and does not go to the regiment." 15 September, a royal decree was sent from Moscow to Polotsk to remove Daley from the command of the regiment, but the messenger arrived too late, and the circumstances had changed by that time. 22 September, the Khovansky regiment, numbering 5 thousand people, launched an offensive to divert the Polish forces from the southern theater of military operations, where the regiments of Prince Yuri Dolgorukov fought. However, after a successful battle under Topchin, he nevertheless found himself surrounded by twice the superior forces of Hetman Sapieha and Czarnecki near Chereus.

Stephen Charnetsky during the Polish-Russian war.

The prince decided to take up the defense, and to wait for the arrival of Dolgorukov's army, which had withstood the bloody battle on the Bash River, but the soldiers almost rebelled, demanding a retreat to Polotsk. Khovansky agreed, and the troops went back through the forest swampy road. Upon learning of this, the Poles sent for them a cavalry detachment of 3 thousand men under the leadership of Colonels Krzysztof Sapieha and Samuel Kmitich, with instructions to tie the enemy's fight to the approach of the main forces. Polish banners were attacked by the Russian rear guard, but Daleyl was able to organize a withdrawal, repulsing all attacks of the enemy. Actually taking command of all the infantry, he fought 50 miles with battles, not allowing panic and the collapse of the detachment. The nucleus of the breakthrough was made by the soldiers of the Daleyl regiment, as well as the Moscow archers Vasily Pushechnikov and Timofei Poltev.

Russian Sagittarians of the XVII century

In May, already 1661 year, Daileil defeated a detachment of Lithuanian colonel Esman, who tried to suddenly capture Polotsk, for which 14 June of the same year "the great sovereign pointed out to the boyar and voivode, Prince Ivan Andreevich Khovansky, his decree to tell him, to General Thomas Dalleil, and he did not take away his will in the military training, and would have made him a general over all the infantry and over the streltsi, for that he knows that he serves Thomas and makes him happy, and military training and every military system is his custom. "

In October of the same year, he was destined to take part in the Battle of the Kushlinkovy Mountains, unfortunately, lost by the Russian troops, after which he, however, had once again saved Polotsk.

In 1663, in recognition of all his services, Daleyl was promoted to full generals and transferred to Smolensk. However, this did not mean the end of the war for him. In 1664 he had to participate in the reflection of the Great March of Jan Casimir, which was Poland's last attempt to break the outcome of the war in its favor. And, fortunately, an attempt failed, and, moreover, overgrown in the catastrophic retreat of the Lithuanian army, Mikhail Pats.

"This retreat lasted two weeks, and we thought that everything would perish. The king himself was saved with great difficulty. There was such a great famine that for two days I saw how there was no bread on the table with the king. It was lost 40 thousand horses, all the cavalry and the whole convoy, and without exaggeration three quarters of the army. In the history of the past centuries, there is nothing that could be compared with the state of such defeat, "recalled the king who served the king, Duke Antoine Gramont.

Horseman of Polish armored cavalry. Jozef Brandt, XIX century.

But the forces and resources were gradually exhausted and the Russian kingdom. The war was already coming to an end, and the veteran soldier, who had done so much for his advantageous completion to Russia, Thomas Dallele in 1665, applied for resignation and return to his native Albion, where by that time the power had already changed and the Stuarts had returned to whom the general had been so committed so far and served. Alexey Mikhailovich satisfied the petition.

In 1666, Dalleil arrived at the court of Charles II in London, and was soon appointed commander of the Scottish army, with the task of pacifying the rebellious covenanters (supporters of the Scottish National Covenant 1638, opponents of the king in the Episcopal wars and the War of Three Kingdoms, known in Russia as the Civil War in England, advocating the actual limitation of the monarch's power). Defeating the rebels at the Battle of Roullon Green, he became a real curse for the surviving covenanters, not without reason believing them to be the culprits for the execution of the king, for which he received the nickname "Bloody Tom" and "The Beast from Muscovy" (!). When in 1679 in the west of Scotland, a new covenant revolt erupted, he, as deputy to the Duke of Monmouth, played a decisive role in the victory at Botwell Bridge, which actually brought the line under the uprising.

In 1679-1685, Dallej, who has already passed the eighth decade, became a member of the Privy Council of the King and a member of parliament from Lilingshushir, and a member of the Judicial Commission for Covenant Affairs.

Thomas Thomas Daley died, at 1685, three years before the Stuart dynasty fell again, and, for once, forever, when the clouds have not yet begun to thicken again over the Three Kingdoms, having lived a long and dignified life, serving on the benefit of both native Scotland and distant Russia, becoming one of the many military specialists who reformed the Russian army along a Western system long before Peter.

Nikita Novsky

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