What is cultural Marxism?

Today, Europe and America are dominated by a foreign belief system, views and values, known as "political correctness". Political correctness seeks to impose a unity of thought and conduct on all Americans and, therefore, is totalitarian in nature. Its roots lie in a kind of Marxism aimed at radically destroying traditional culture in order to accomplish a social revolution.

The social revolution has a long history, presumably it is described in the "Republic" of Plato. The French Revolution of the year 1789 inspired Karl Marx, and he began to develop his theories in the 19-th century. In the twentieth century, the success of the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 in Russia aroused a wave of optimistic expectations in Marxist circles in Europe and America, because believed that the "new proletarian world of equality" had finally been created. That Russia as the first country in the world of the victorious communist system will now lead the revolutionary forces of the whole world to victory.

The Marxist revolutionary forces of Europe began to use this opportunity. After the end of the First World War, a communist uprising of the "Spartacists" took place in Berlin under the leadership of Rosa Luxemburg, the "Bavarian Council" headed by Kurt Eisner was created; in 1919, the "Hungarian Communist Republic", headed by Bela Kun, was also formed. At the time, very much feared that the whole of Europe could fall under the banner of Bolshevism. This feeling of doom was further strengthened due to Trotsky's invasion of Poland in 1919.

Nevertheless, the Red Army was defeated by the Polish troops in the Battle of the Vistula in 1920. "Spartacus", the government of Soviet Bavaria and the Hungarian Republic of Bela Kun they could not get broad support from the workers, and soon all of them were overthrown. These events created a predicament for Marxist-revolutionaries in Europe. According to the Marxist economic theory, the oppressed workers should have been interested in social revolution and take their place at the top of the power structure. However, when these opportunities were provided, the workers did not respond to them. Marxist-revolutionaries did not recognize their theories as vicious because of these failures. They accused the working class of this.

One group of Marxist intellectuals began to analyze the cultural "superstructure of society," not the economy, as Marx did. The Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci and the Hungarian Jew Georg Lukacs made the greatest contribution to this new form of Marxism - "Cultural Marxism."

Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci worked for the Communist International at 1923-24. in Moscow and Vienna. Later, he was imprisoned by Mussolini, in which he wrote his famous "Prison notes." Among Marxists, Gramsci is known for his theory of cultural hegemony as a way of class domination. In his opinion, a new "communist man" must be created even before the political revolution becomes possible. This led to the concentration of intellectual efforts on education and culture. Gramsci assumed a long way through the institutions of society, including. government, judges, military, schools and the media. He also concluded that While the workers still have Christianity in their souls, they will not react to revolutionary appeals.

Georg Lukacs (the real name of Levininger) was the son of a wealthy Hungarian Jewish banker. Lukács began his political life as an agent of the Comintern. His book "History and Class Consciousness" brought him fame as a leading theorist-Marxist. Lukacs believed that for the emergence of a new Marxist culture, the existing culture must be destroyed. He said: "I consider the revolutionary destruction of society as the only solution to the cultural contradictions of the era," and: "Such a worldwide destruction of values ​​can not happen without the destruction of old values ​​and the creation of new, revolutionary ones."

Becoming Deputy People's Commissar for Culture under the Bolshevik regime of Bela Kun in Hungary in 1919, Lukács engaged in the so-called "Cultural terrorism". As part of this terrorism, he introduced radical sex education programs in Hungarian schools. Hungarian children were taught free love, sexual intercourse, ideas were inspired about the archaic nature of the family way of life, the outdated nature of monogamy and the irrelevance of religion, which deprives a person of all pleasures. Women were also called to rebel against the sexual mores of that time. Lukach's "cultural terrorism" was a harbinger of what later, in times of political correctness, came to American schools.

In 1923, Lukacs and other Marxist intellectuals associated with the Communist Party of Germany founded the Institute for Social Research in Germany, in Frankfurt am Main. The Institute, which became known as the "Frankfurt School", was created after the model of the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow. In 1933, when the Nazis came to power in Germany, members of the Frankfurt school fled. The majority moved to the United States.

Members of the "Frankfurt School" conducted numerous studies on religion, beliefs, social and human values, which, in their opinion, underlie the growth of National Socialism in Germany. Studies of the Frankfurt School combined Marxist analysis with Freud's psychoanalysis and laid the foundation for what became known as the "theory of criticism."

The theory of criticism was, in essence, a destructive criticism of the basic elements of Western culture, including Christianity, capitalism, power, family, patriarchal order, hierarchy, morality, tradition, sexual restraint, loyalty, patriotism, nationalism, inheritance, ethnocentrism, customs and conservatism.

These criticisms were reflected in such works of the Frankfurt school as "Escape from Freedom" and "The Dogma of Christ" by Erich Fromm, "Mass Psychology of Fascism" by Wilhelm Reich and "Authoritarian Personality" by Theodor Adorno.

Theodore Adorno

"Authoritarian personality", published in 1950, had a significant impact on American psychologists and sociologists. The book is based on one basic idea that the presence of Christianity, capitalism and a patriarchal-authoritarian family in society create a penchant for racial prejudice and German fascism. "Authoritarian personality" has become a reference book in the campaign against any prejudices or discrimination according to the theory that if this evil is not eradicated, then on the American continent a second holocaust may occur. In turn, this campaign served as the basis for the ideology of political correctness.

The theory of criticism included a number of sub-theories aimed at destroying specific elements of the existing culture, including "The theory of matriarchy," "Androgynous theory" [a phenomenon in which a person manifests simultaneously (not necessarily equally) both female and masculine qualities, "unisex"], "personality theory", "power theory," "family theory," "theory of sexuality," " racial theory, "" theory of law, "and" literature theory. " When they were put into practice, these theories were to be used to overthrow the existing social order and to carry out a social revolution on the basis of the principles of cultural Marxism.

The theorists of the Frankfurt school understood that in order to achieve this goal, traditional perceptions and existing social structures must be destroyed and then replaced. The patriarchal social structure will be replaced by matriarchy; the belief that men and women are different and, therefore, play different roles, will be replaced by "unisex", and the idea that heterosexuality is normal will be replaced by the idea of ​​homosexuality.

Having drawn a large plan designed to destroy the values ​​inherent in white heterosexual man, theorists of the Frankfurt school came to the racial contradictions of the Trotskyists.

Still, Leon Trotsky believed that oppressed blacks could be the vanguard of the communist revolution in North America. He condemned the white workers who prejudiced against blacks and urged them, together with the Negroes, to make a revolution. Trotsky's ideas were accepted by many student leaders of the counterculture movement of the 1960-ies who tried to put the black revolutionaries in the leadership positions in their movement.

Revolutionary students were also strongly influenced by ideas Herbert Marcuse, another representative of the Frankfurt school. Marcuse preached the "Great Refusal", the rejection of all basic Western concepts, a sexual revolution, an increase in feminism and a revolution of the blacks. His main thesis was that students, negroes from the ghetto, marginals, antisocial elements and people from Third World countries can take the place of the proletariat in the future communist revolution.

Herbert Marcuse

In his book Essay on Liberation, Marcuse stated his goal of radical revaluation of values, the removal of taboos, cultural subversive work, the "theory of criticism" and linguistic protest, which will lead to a methodical overturning of meanings. As for racial conflicts, Marcuse wrote that white people are guilty and that blacks are the most natural force of insurrection.

From the point of view of the origins of political correctness, Marcuse can be considered the most important representative of the Frankfurt School, because his teaching was an important link for the counterculture of the 1960-ies. His goal was clear: "one can rightfully talk about a cultural revolution, because the protest is directed against the entire cultural establishment, including against the morality of the existing society ... "The means was the release of the powerful, primitive force of sex from all civilizational restrictions (his book Eros and Civilization, 1955). Marcuse became one of the main gurus of the youth sexual revolution of 1960-x, it is his slogan MAKE LOVE, NOT WAR (make love, not war). His contribution to the teachings of the Marxist Frankfurt School was concluding: from Lukacs' activities as deputy to the People's Commissar for Culture in the Bolshevik government of Hungary in 1919 before burning the flag by American students and seizing the buildings of the college administration in 1960. Today, many of these colleges are centers of political correctness, and former radical students have become deans.

One of the most important creator of the ideology of political correctness was Betty Friden. Thanks to her book "Women's mysticism", Friden became the founder of the modern feminist movement in America. Friedan was not a member of the Frankfurt School, but was strongly influenced by her. Her work provides evidence of the Marxist essence of political correctness.

Friedan devoted almost the whole chapter in "Female Mysticism" to the theory of self-realization of Abraham Maslow. Maslow was a social psychologist who, in his early work, was engaged in research on female dominance and sexuality. Maslow was a friend of Herbert Marcuse at the University of Bandeis, with Erich Fromm he met at 1936. He was greatly impressed with Fromm's ideology. He wrote an article "The nature of an authoritarian system" (1944 g), it examined the theory of the individual within the theory of criticism. Maslow was impressed by the work of Wilhelm Reich, who was another creator of personality theory at the Frankfurt School.

The significance of the historical roots of political correctness can not be fully appreciated without considering Betty Friedan's gender theory as an extension of the revolutionary process begun by Karl Marx. A simple proof is Friedan's references to the work of Abraham Maslow on the ideology of the Frankfurt School. Another proof is the connection between the Friedan gender revolution and the destruction of "old values ​​and the creation of new ones" by Georg Lukacs with the "reassessment of values" by Herbert Marcuse. But the idea of ​​transformation of the patriarchate into a matriarchy, which is designed to address gender inversion, can be directly linked to the work of Friedrich Engels "The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State." First published in 1884, this book reinforced the belief that feminists now feel that deeply entrenched discrimination against women stems from patriarchy. The belief that the matriarchy was destroyed by the patriarchy can be traced in Marx's comments to the "German ideology" published in 1845. In this work, Marx advanced the idea that wives and children were the first property of the patriarchal man of the matriarchal theory. The theory of the matriarchy of the Frankfurt school (and partly androgynous unisex theory) originated from these sources.

When addressing the general public, supporters of political correctness - or cultural Marxism, to be more precise, try to present their own views in an attractive light. It's just a question of being more "responsive" to other people, they say. Using words such as "tolerance" and "diversity" (diversity), they ask: "Why can not we all get along with each other?"

Reality, however, is quite different. Political correctness does not mean "being nice." Political correctness is Marxism with all that it implies: a ban on freedom of expression, control over thoughts, overturning of traditional public order and, ultimately, a totalitarian state. The cultural Marxism created by the Frankfurt School is a more terrible phenomenon than the old, economic theories of Marxism ("traditional Marxism"), which collapsed in Russia. At the very least, economic Marxists do not extol sexual perversions and do not attempt to recreate matriarchy, as the representatives of the Frankfurt School and its followers do.

This short sketch shows the connection between classical Marxism and those forms of the "cultural revolution" that took place in America in the 1960-ies. Of course, events do not stop at 60-ies; The schemes of the Frankfurt School still work, especially in the field of education. But this will be the subject of our further research.



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