Vasily Vavrik - the last of the Mohicans

The next article about the undeservedly forgotten heroes of Russia would like to dedicate Vasily Romanovich Vavrik - Galician Russophile, white officer and leader of the "Carpatho-Russian Detachment", Doctor of Science of Prague and Lviv Universities, poet, researcher of folklore, and just a good person.

The XIX century became the century of the triumph of empires and nationalism. In some cases, nationalism was the self-satisfied bragging of the sovereign nations, in others - the awakening of the people's forces and potential, aimed at a qualitative transformation of the simple masses. It was this kind of nationalism that Galician Russophilia was. About him you can talk for a long time - everyone can find out about this topic in detail. The theme of our today's story will be the fate of one of these Russophiles, which, perhaps, became one of the most famous of them - and one can not say that it is not deserved.

Vasily Romanovich Vavrik was born 21 March (2 April) 1889 year in the village of Jasnice under Brody in Austria-Hungary in the family of a wealthy Galician peasant. Father, following the tradition of Galician Russophiles, gave his son to the German grammar school in Brody, after which Vasily, in 1912, entered the law faculty of Lviv University - education in Russian in Austria-Hungary was banned, and to send his children to the gymnasium, controlled Ukrainophiles, the Russian lands did not want. There the young Wavric entered the local Galician-Russian environment and began to take an active part in the Carpatho-Russian movement. The Moskvophiles of that time were already undermining their influence, having surrendered some of their positions to Ukrainophiles, but still remained a fairly strong social group, with their deputies in the regional and cisleitan parliaments, newspapers, their own cultural environment and associations that still affected the life of the region. Meanwhile, the First World War was approaching, forever destroying the former world.

World War I

Together with the majority of Russophiles, as a representative of the potentially disloyal Habsburg House of the group, soon after the outbreak of the war, Vavrik is imprisoned by denouncing him to the Terezin concentration camp. There he meets with Gavril the Principle, because of the shot of which the war, in fact, began, and later transferred to another camp of Talergof. The current Ukrainian nationalists like to joke about the "Austro-Hungarian General Staff", but, in fact, the Austro-Hungarian leadership has really striven to eliminate the Russian movement in Galicia, and - in physical terms too. As Wavric himself wrote:

Some of those executed in Talerhof. A Greek Catholic priest and father of three children, a simple clerk and a peasant, father of five.

'' It was the most dreaded prison from all Austrian prisons in the Habsburg Empire. <...>

Death in Talerhof was rarely natural: it was vaccinated with the poison of contagious diseases. Talerhof staged a violent death triumphantly. There was no talk of any treatment for those who perished. The hostility towards the internees was different even for doctors.

We did not have to think about healthy food: tart bread, often damp and sticky, made from a mixture of the most dastardly flour, horse chestnuts and grated straw, red, hard, stale horse meat twice a week in a small piece, dyed black water, rotten potatoes and beets, dirt, nests of insects were the cause of an unextinguished contagion, the victims of which fell thousands of young, still quite healthy people from among the peasantry and the intelligentsia.

To intimidate people, in order to prove their strength, the prison authorities here and there over the whole Talerhof Square pierced the pillars, which were often hung in the unspoken tortures of already battered martyrs. "


But the Austrian Empire needed cannon fodder for the war, and because Vavrik was mobilized into the active army, being sent to the Italian front. Not wishing to fight for his stepmother, he quickly surrenders, and, by the efforts of the Russian consul, gets freedom, entering the Russian Expeditionary Corps in France.

Austro-Hungarian positions on the Italian front, 1915

Passing through a series of fierce battles against the Germans on the Western Front, in 1917, on the eve of the October Revolution, Vavrik finds himself in Russia in troubled Petrograd. Not accepting it, he, like many other Russians, goes to the Don, where he joins the Volunteer Army and becomes a pioneer. It is there, in Rostov, he discovers other "moskvofilov" - Rusyns who fought for the United and Indivisible Russia, from which he then organizes the Carpatho-Russian detachment. Hundreds of intellectuals, former students, gymnasiums and peasants, with honor went through the whole war, from the Kuban campaign and to the defense of the Crimea. At its end, Vavrik was in the rank of captain.

Some of the distinguished fighters of the Karpatorussky detachment

In exile, our hero first appeared in Prague. In the newly created Czechoslovakia, the best conditions were created for Russian emigrants, especially veterans of the First World War and the Civil War, and, first of all, the condition for the Russian students to get a gymnasium and university education at the state expense. This is what Vasily Romanovich used as a student of the ancient Charles Institute in Prague, finishing it in 1925. With brilliance defending the thesis '' Yakov Golovatsky and his significance in the Galician-Russian literature '', he becomes a doctor of Slavic philology. Having worked in the Uzhgorod Russian Orthodox Herald, Vavrik returned to Lviv, where in 1926 he also became a doctor of philosophy for his thesis "IN Vagilevich, his life and work". There, in the conditions of Pilsudski's polonizational policy and counteraction to it in the form of the radical Ukrainian OUN, he continues his Galician-Russian enlightenment activity, becomes a member of the ancient Stavropigiysky Institute, which dates back to the 16th century, and works as editor of the Stavropigiisk Institute's Temporary. As a former prisoner of Talerhoff, he participates in the compilation of the Talerhof almanacs, detailed collections devoted to the history of the destruction by the Austro-Hungarian authorities of representatives of the Carpatho-Russian movement. He also writes about studies of prominent Galician Russophiles - IG Naumovich (1826-1891), OA Monchalovsky (1858-1906), DA Markov (1864-1938), and others. By this time, a number of his own poetry collections and several novellas, as well as participation in two collections (The Collection of Russian Poets in Poland and The Anthology of Russian Poetry in Poland), the translation of The Lay of Igor's Host in the Galician pagan language ('' The word about the regiment of Igor, in 750-literary rychnitsyu of his appearance, with the introduction of the word, explanations of the text and the translation into Galician-Rus 'of the people of the people)', an essay on the carpatho-rises in the White Army ('' Carpatho-Russians in the Kornilov campaign and the Volunteer Army ") and a number of works on history (including the church) and the cult edge.

One of the works of Vavrik.

The accession of the lands of Eastern Ukraine and Eastern Byelorussia resulted in the closure of all Russophile institutions of the East Kresov. Nevertheless, the former white captain miraculously managed to get settled and not get under the rink of repression, becoming a teacher of the Russian language at Lviv University. With the occupation of Lvov by the Germans, Stavropigia was able to restore its work, and Vavrik again took an active part in it, who nonetheless sympathized with the Soviet Union, and his two brothers, Peter and Pavel, were shot by the Germans for their participation in the resistance.

After the end of the Second World War, Vavrik again began to teach Russian at the University of Lvov, becoming also a research fellow of the Lviv Historical Museum. He took an active part in the life of the Orthodox parish at St. George's Church in Lviv, maintaining close contacts with other Russian Galicians, thus continuing the work of his father and his own youth.

Church of St. George, Lviv

Vavrik continued to write poems both in literary Russian and in local languages, secretly cooperating also with the emigre Carpatho-Russian magazine 'The Free Word of the Carpathian Rus' (Mikhail Turianitsa, USA), speaking on the one hand, against the local nationalists, but, in the same time, and against anti-communists. Nevertheless, the magazine recognized Stalin's personal role in the creation of Ukraine, giving him all due, with a negative, of course, the parties. Vavrik also collaborated with the Carpatho-Russian Calendar of the Lemko-Union, in which he placed his research related to Lemke.

Generally speaking, the relationship between Vavrik and the Soviet authorities was rather complicated. Fighting against her during the Civil War, he later de facto reconciled with it: on the one hand, he naturally could not like the Ukrainization of Galicia and the suppression of the local Russophile movement, on the other - he was extremely impressed by the very fact of the unification of Moscow and Lvov in one state - especially considering that from the Russian political field, Galicia fell as early as 1392. In principle, the accession of Lvov to the USSR in this respect could in fact theoretically yield positive results: a common state, integration into a single space, migration of Russians from the RSFSR, but in practice led to even greater Russophobia and rejection of Russian identity - if during the Civil War The Ukrainian Galician Army was rather loyal to the White Guards, now Galicia is a stronghold of anti-Russian Ukrainian nationalism. And the policy of the Soviet authorities, with which Russia as such was associated, played an important role in this.

Joining Western Ukraine in 1939.

Given that the Soviet authorities did not recognize any of his doctoral degrees received abroad, in 1956 he had to defend his dissertation on philology at the Kiev Institute of Literature named after Shevchenko at the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

At the end of his life Vasily Romanovich retired and lived in one of the buildings that belonged to Stavropigia earlier on the street of Ivan Fedorov, a Russian printer who linked both Muscovy and Lvov. Vasily Romanovich Vavrik died according to one 5 data, according to the other 7 July 1970, and was buried in the Bratsk grave of Galician-Russian writers and journalists at the Lychakiv Cemetery.

The mass grave of Galician-Russian journalists, Lviv, Lychakiv Cemetery

Nikita Novsky

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