An interesting idea read Ortega is in relation to the formation of Russian elites. He cited the example of Nikolai Patrushev as the highest hereditary elite. And contrasts the highest elite of the “Panins” - the average hand of the nomenklatura ghouls.
In general, they agree with the thoughts of the respected Ortega, but we detail the principles on which the current Russian elites have formed:
In the world, we can distinguish, simplifying, three types of elites:
- traditional aristocratic
- new meritocratic
The structural feature of the first type of elite is inherited power, intellectual and financial capital (national capital!). A distinctive feature of the aristocracy and the main reason for the possession of privileges - DEVOTION nation. The main profession of an aristocrat is military. The main property of an aristocrat - EARTH and other assets concentrated in the YOUR COUNTRY. The most illustrative example of the principle of "privilege for the loyalty of the nation" is the loss among representatives of the English aristocracy during the First World War. It is striking (for the post-Soviet man) that the English aristocracy as a class lost more in percentage terms than the English proletariat. This, by the way, is a good refutation of the theory about the capitalist oppressors of the working people. That is, a true aristocrat - will not go anywhere in a dashing year, will not start frantically looking for "varicies" to obtain a Maltese passport and withdraw assets into offshore companies, but will lead his people into battle and die in the first line.
Consider the mentality of meritocratic elites. It is very multi-faceted - it has both positive and negative qualities for national self-awareness. The best option is a self-made man, rising from the bottoms thanks to personal perseverance and talent, consistently fulfilling the specific rules that society establishes - he studied well at school, at university, and worked responsibly - eventually climbed up. In a healthy society, recruiting middle-ranking elites should be formed precisely from such people. In the west it until recently was quite a traditional model for the formation of elites. This was ensured by high-quality higher education and social services. lifts.
However, this kind of people develop a rather peculiar view of things, when they reach high positions in power and serious positions in companies - and no, they do not become a national aristocracy. Since there are no natural privileges that every aristocrat has by birth, they do not develop those obligations to their country that impose the status of an aristocrat. Consider a specific phenomenon: a Moscow investment banker can easily go to Deutsche Bank, move to a better position in Singapore, London, Dubai - wherever and whenever - the issue of benefits.
Because you are nobody to me.
First of all, I FUNCTION - without a clan and tribe, and owes nothing to anyone, and I achieved everything with my perseverance, work, and where it is necessary - with an asshole. By the same logic, for example, a European bureaucrat from Eastern European countries works. When he has the opportunity, he evacuates from his Bulgaria from “Plovdiv snouts” to places where people have more beautiful faces, everyone is smiling and polite. For example, I was in the Bulgarian Central Bank, I moved to the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to oversee investments in the Balkans. Or from the national government moved to the European Commission. That is why populist success is observed in Eastern Europe. It comes to the fact that people who speak a foreign language in leading posts in Bulgaria are treated with suspicion. Because where is the guarantee - that you will not give up and go to the West. The lack of national elites willing to take responsibility - a significant problem for a country that has already lost 20% of the population over the past 25 years - and will lose as many by the 2050 year. The problem is especially acute when there are no social elevators in one’s own country - there can be no other than emigration. Greece thus left the 500.000 young Greeks.
These are 5% of the population - and they are crucial for the development of the state.
And the third type of modern elite is post-communist. This, in fact, is our version, represented by a mixture of the former party nomenclature, people from the KGB and other special services, all kinds of gesheftmahyers that were able to quickly adapt to the redistribution of social property, as well as ethnoclans on the wave of 90. Moreover, the clan-nomenclature system extends to all state spheres: clans are formed by university rectors, academicians, chief doctors of clinics.
And ethnic Russians quickly begin to form such "ethnoclan", but not quite on ethnic grounds. For example, in one of the capital's universities, in which the author of this text had the honor to study, the Russian rector appointed teachers of the departments of his fellow countrymen from the same city of central Russia as teachers. Which, in connection with this, there are problems with the quality of the elite: the clumsy clan-nomenclature system does not have developed career elevators and transparent rules, which is typical for meritocracy. This is a meaningless attempt by talented young people from among the "people's intelligentsia" to break through in this marsh and self-actualize. There are three ways out:
- Try to join on second roles to a certain clan
- To leave the profession, where for you there are no chances of career growth
- Emigration is an attempt to climb up the western meritocratic ladder from an outsider's position on bird rights, using its talents and perseverance. Actually, this is the way the majority of Greek and East European youth go. Western countries are well aware that they are going to a resource for exploitation without special options in life - they can be given all the grass-roots work, and they can take their places at the top of the pyramid. For example, in many German universities already more than 60% of graduate students are foreigners. In this case, professors, group leaders - with rare exceptions, local. The same goes for medicine.
At the same time, the Russian Federation is in a much more favorable position in terms of leaking human capital than the countries of eastern and southern Europe. In particular, Russia is in no way integrated with Europe in terms of education standards + the legal status of a migrant from the Russian Federation is equal to the legal status of an African - that is, the citizenship of a non-EU country. This greatly complicates the possibility for the same doctors to leave to work from Moscow to Germany. But their colleagues from Athens or Lisbon do not have such problems - they recognize the diploma throughout the EU, they have the right to reside in Western Europe without any visas, “blue cards” and permanent residence.
Moreover, in Russia, in general, the rules are much softer - a person with a higher education may well change his profession, he can do "buy and sell", you can with much more ease not pay taxes (which are also lower than in the EU), you can do a lot of things , and plus to all in the Russian Federation there is no frank poverty, which would force people to flee the country. For example: in Italy, Ukrainians live in 6 times more than people with Russian passports (and in the RF in 3 times the population) - that is, migration to 18 (!) Times more intensive.
In the end, we have a situation in which the government frankly neglects human capital, which any Poland and Portugal will envy.
Regarding the Russian elite, in principle, it is rather foolish to wonder why after the collapse of the scoop we did not organize the national aristocracy or the likeness of the Western meritocracy. The Soviet nomenklatura had power, but personally they did not own anything other than the “Volga”, a poor summer cottage in the Moscow region and the rights to a voucher to a departmental sanatorium. Moreover, their level of education and competencies were incomparable with those of traditional aristocracy. Thesis “Cooks children will rule the state” has not been canceled. Thus, we get a stratum of people who do not possess anything, whose level of education is not different from a collective farmer or a worker, but at the same time they are endowed with full power. Absurd. And how could something else come out of this? Namely, in 90, they began to plunder former social property using their position.
Some particularly naive comrades for a long time believed that their children could become a kind of European aristocracy, the "international elite" in London. As the recent events with Mr. Abramovich, who was not prolonged by the British visa as the last guest worker, show, these dreams have nothing to do with reality. The real status of the Russian elite in the West is marginal, which is allowed to sit in a salon with decent people and pay. No more, no less.
Their children, who study at the best universities in Britain and Switzerland - besides purely education, which is not the main function of an elite university - do not socialize among the children of the real European aristocracy. They do not receive valuable links, without which in the West you are no more than an outsider with a diploma and some competencies. I had the opportunity to communicate with a tusovka children of the Russian elite in one European country - their situation is very sad. They are even a little sorry - they are marginalized in social isolation, communicate with themselves like from South America and Arab countries. Yes, they can buy everything. But they do not sell the most important thing.
And of course - the existing post-Soviet clan system must be decisively reformed. Without the creation of powerful social elevators, transparent rules and real career prospects - the state will be ignored by the youth and stay in silent conflict with it. At the moment, young people, with their initiative and energy, on their part, are confronted with kicks from the system and quickly come to realize their worthlessness and impotence. In the face of pressure from the West and global instability in general, the authorities must turn the educated youth into their allies. To do this, you just need to let her do her own thing and get a certain exhaust from it, which will be economically viable.
Specificity: it cannot be that the 6 medical student is studying for years, probably for money (I won’t raise the quality of this education), and then I have to study for at least two years in a residency for a specialist (this is not study, but full hard work). At the same time, budget places are allocated for 1000 graduates of the 100 order. The rest are either forced to pay (up to 700.000 for residency, yes - to pay for doing work), or leave the profession (and why did the government financed these budget places of 6 for years), or sign a “target contract” for three years with a clinic in provincial regions in order to get a budget place (and then only for the specialty that gives the region).
After the end of 8 years of kicks and humiliations, a young doctor does not have money, does not have guaranteed employment - that means he can not create and support his family, he can not buy real estate. He is simply not independent, which inevitably affects the morale of an adult man 26-30 years. At the same time, he does not feel any hopes for a career, for warm places are supposed to occupy clan ghouls. Is this situation appropriate to the status of the elite and the responsibility that is assigned to the physician?
If we create the minimum acceptable conditions for young cadres, distrust of the system will quickly dissolve and the "people's intelligentsia" will switch to productive cooperation. It is impossible to form an elite, if it should be responsible for everything, but does not possess either the status or the welfare inherent in the elite. This problem was successfully eliminated in the army - when earlier the Russian officer had the status of a half-bomzh-half-sergeant. Precisely the same should be done with regard to medicine and science - to return these professions the status that they have in accordance with common sense and the most important function that they carry in society. But the details of the reform of medicine, perhaps, we leave for another text. In general, on the topic of investment in human capital there is a good German proverb: "Wertschöpfung durch Wertschätzung", which translates as "creating added property by respecting employees."