Modern levoliberal trends, it would seem, have already entangled everything - politics, education, culture, the media, modern influences have already penetrated even such a seemingly conservative stronghold as church, and penetrated quite a long time. The liberal trends in the Protestant churches of different domination, Catholicism, individual local Orthodox churches should be known to everyone who is interested, but less aware of the reaction of conservative believers to them. And she too is.
They manifest themselves both completely inside such churches subject to modernism, and as a transition to other, more conservative churches of similar denomination, and sometimes even other confessions, as well as to autonomous religious organizations within the Church (such as visiting parishes of the brotherhood of St. Pius X, partly faith-based parishes in the Russian Orthodox Church). There is a similar resistance in the Anglican churches, known as '' Anglican realignment '', or, translating into Russian, '' Anglican reconstruction '', '' reconstruction of Anglicans ''. But first you should talk about the Anglicans device itself.
Anglican Communion (Anglican Communion) consists of 39 autonomous churches and ecclesiastical provinces, and six ekstraprovintsialnyh (extraprovincial) churches, five of which are in metropolitan archbishop of Canterbury, including two historically formed from former Catholics (Luizitanskuyu Catholic Apostolic Gospel Church and the Spanish reform the Episcopal Church).
The head of the Community is the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is also the spiritual head of the Church of England, but in the management of the Community his role is predominantly formal, spiritual, and much more important is the Lambeth Conference, the Anglican Consultative Council and the Meeting of the Primates. The Lambeth Conference is held by the Bishops' community approximately every ten years on the convocation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and discusses common issues and problems, adopting resolutions that intend to set a vector for their resolution. The Advisory Council meets once every 3 year, consisting of both priesthood and lay people, and doing, in general, is about the same. Finally, there are still periodic meetings of the heads of churches and provinces, introduced, as it may seem strange, later - in 1979, unlike 1867 in the case of the Lambeth Conference and 1971 in the case of the Advisory Council.
Anyway, all decisions of these bodies are recommendatory, not binding. Thus, despite the rather liberal position of the Church of England and the Episcopal Church in the United States, the Church of Uganda is distinguished by a rather strong conservatism, which allows it to take part in the Anglican Reconstruction.
The movement was given a start by the liberal tendencies of the Lambeth Conference. The question of the relationship between church conservatism and liberalism, in the form of, for example, questions regarding divorce, the death penalty, the female priesthood and contraception, arose from the very beginning. Despite the decision of the 1897 conference that the provinces are autonomous in resolving these issues, and none of them have power over the other, some of them decided to unite. Although the support of the female clergy was not yet accepted in Lambeth at that time, some provinces began to do it themselves before this issue was raised again in 1978.
But most significantly, the creation of the movement was influenced by the beginning of the ordination of female priests in the Episcopal Church in the United States in 1976, leading to the creation of the "Continuing Anglican Movement" the following year. Congress of Sts. Louis in 1977 year, which brought together an order of 2000 Anglicans from the US and Canada, declared female ordination as a matter of schism, for it would rupture the apostolic succession preserved in the Anglican Community. Accordingly, the "Continuing Anglican Movement" saw itself as those who would retain this continuity. However, unlike him, the members of the "English Perestroika" still do not break with the Anglican Community, but act inside it. The theme of the "Continuing Anglican Movement" will be disclosed in the next article.
As such, the "Anglican Perestroika" movement began at the dawn of the 2000, when the vector of further liberal transformations became much more obvious. And it began with Canada.
In May, the synod of the New Westminster diocese 2002, geographically located in British Columbia and the Yukon, voted to allow the blessing of same-sex marriages for the third time, receiving the support of the bishop. This move, however, provoked vehement discontent on the part of nine parishes, two of which joined the Church of Rwanda, two returned in time to the Church of Canada, and five remained outside both churches. It was this transition of the two communities located in the extreme west of this North American monarchy under the leadership of the more conservative Church of Rwanda that initiated the process that would later affect much more parishes and churches.
In 2003, a similar precedent occurred in the US Episcopal Church. Jean Robinson, a divorced priest who openly lives in a same-sex union, was ordained by the bishop of New Hampshire. And despite the refusal of the Archbishop of Canterbury to recognize such transitions, a number of parishes, as well as bishops and priests, joined the churches of Nigeria, Rwanda, and the diocese of Bolivia. At the October Primors 15 – 16 meeting in the same year, it was stated that “bishops should respect the autonomy and territorial integrity of other provinces”. However, this did not work.
Already 11 January 2004 year to withdraw from the Episcopal Church and join the Diocese of Bolivia in the Province of South Coon announced Bishop Foley Beach of Monroe, Georgia, which led to even more transitions.
In 2005, the Church of England passed a decree on the registration of same-sex unions, subject to assurances that their relationship would be within the framework of celibacy. In 2006, Katherine Jefferts Shorey became Primate of the Episcopal Church, which led to an even greater wave of transitions to other provinces. In December of the same year, two churches in Virginia became part of the Church of Nigeria.
30 August 2007 The two conservative priests from America were ordained by the bishops of Kenya's archbishop Benjamin Nzimbi and other bishops from Africa, South America, the West Indies and the Indian Ocean. In November, Gregory Venables, a primate of the Province of Southern Con in South America, announced the creation of parishes in Canada under his jurisdiction, for which he ordained two retired Canadian bishops. 8 December 2007 in favor of moving to the Province of Southern Con has already expressed an entire convention of the San Juakin diocese in California, which ultimately led to a split into two dioceses within the Episcopal Church and the Province of Southern Con, respectively. What is interesting is that it remains in the Province of Southern Conn, exceeding the former both in the number of parishioners and in the number of properties in its possession. October 4 2008 was similarly adopted by the diocese convention of Pittsburgh, the second largest city in Pennsylvania, the November synod of Kiuns diocese in Illinois, and November 8 and the Fort Worth diocese convention in Texas. And already 15 – 3 December, the Anglican Church in North America was founded, the 4 parish year on 2017 and the parishioner 1004 131.
In March 2009, the Church of Nigeria announced that it was in communion with the Anglican Church in North America, 16 on April, ACSVA recognized the Brotherhood of Anglicans, and on June 23 the Church of Uganda. However, the detachments had problems with property - the courts held established that in the case of such a hierarchical church as the Episcopal, all property belonged to the leadership, and thus all property of ACSA should be returned to the EC. However, there were some good news - 28 of October ACSA recognized the Sydney diocese.
In February, the Synod of the Church of England recognized 2010, the ACVSA desire to remain in the “Anglican Family”, but at the same time, recognized the problems that may follow, and therefore asked the archbishops to do another report next year. 12 April 2010, Archbishop Jan Ernest of the Indian Ocean Province, Chairman of the Council of Anglican Provinces of Africa, said that he felt “held back by his conscience ... to immediately suspend all communication, both verbal and sacramental,” with the Episcopal Church and the Anglican Church Canada ”until they change their theological innovations.” 23 On April 2010, representatives of 20 Anglican provinces gathered in Singapore called on the Episcopal Church and ACC to "show genuine repentance" for actions that "" show that they continue to be neglected, setting a course contrary to the understandable teachings of the Holy Scripture in such fundamental issues that affect the very salvation of those concerned. ”
The February 2 Court of Appeal of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania upheld the decision to return the entire diocesan property of the Episcopal Church. On the same day, one of the largest parishes of the ACVSA signed an agreement with the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh, which allowed him to buy out his building and agree that he would not be in the Diocese of ACVSA for at least five years or payments to the Episcopal Diocese are still being made. 8 February The 2011 District Court of Tarrant, Texas, published a partial summary decision in which it stated that those who remained in the Episcopal Church are the legitimate owners of all of the Diocesan property of the Bishop’s Diocese of Fort Worth. The order remained, however, pending further arguments and appeals.
On February 27, the bishop of the Gypsland Diocese in Victoria in Australia defended the appointment of open gay priests in a relationship. This happened after Gippsland had already been criticized by the Anglican Church League, an organization associated with the “Anglican Reconstruction”, mainly based in the conservative diocese of Sydney. On October 17, the Episcopal Diocese of South Carolina announced that it was leaving the National Episcopal Church, two days after the Presiding Bishop Jefferts Schori informed Bishop Mark Lawrence that his spiritual activities were limited as a result of the verdict of the Bishops' Disciplinary Council. In September, the Council found Lawrence guilty of abandoning the Episcopal Church by an “open denial of the Discipline of the Church”. The output of such a large diocese became a landmark in the history of the movement.
In 2013, the Church of England agreed that gay clergy in civil partnerships could hold episcopal posts as long as they remained sexually abstinent, issuing a statement that the Chamber [Bishops] confirmed that clergy in civil partnerships living in accordance with the teachings of the Church on human sexuality may be a candidate for the episcopate. Naturally, this caused strong indignation among church conservatives. The Church of Nigeria issued a statement against the actions of the Church of England to allow clergy in civil unions to be bishops, stating that the decision to allow homosexual clergy in civil partnerships, which can now be considered a candidate for bishopric, is one step from the moral cliff, which we have already seen in the Episcopal Church and the Anglican Church of Canada. ” Ntagali’s archbishop of Uganda’s Church also criticized the Church of England, saying that it’s “very sad to hear that the Church of England, which once brought the gospel of Jesus Christ to Uganda, made such a significant step from the very Gospel that brought life, light and hope for us. ”
At 2014, the US Supreme Court ruled Virginia that the real estate and some other assets of the Falls Church legally belong to the Virginia Episcopal Diocese, which ended up challenging the overwhelming majority of parishioners who wanted to retain property after leaving the Episcopal Church. In the same year, during a government consultation on same-sex civil partnerships, the leadership of the Church of England asked the government to maintain civil unions. The Church of England recognizes that same-sex relationships often embody loyalty and reciprocity. Civil partnerships allow these Christian virtues to be recognized socially and legally within the proper framework. ” Christian Concern, a conservative British organization, reacted to the statement of the Church of England on civil partnerships with criticism: “Since this law was passed, civil partnership has always been understood as an acknowledgment of sexual relations for homosexual couples. However, according to the law of God, all sexual activity outside of marriage between a man and a woman is wrong and does not bring blessings. It is tragic that the Church of England supports an arrangement of this type. ”
In June, the Scottish Episcopal Church spoke out in favor of resolving same-sex marriages, setting a second reading for 2016 year. In July, the Anglican Church of Canada did the same, assigning a second reading to 2017. September 2019 3 Bishop Nicholas Chamberlain of the Grantham Diocese stated that he was gay, in celibacy and in long-term same-sex relationships with his partner. Archbishop Justin Welby defended the appointment, which said that "He lives according to the guidelines of the bishops and his sexuality has absolutely nothing to do with his office." GAFCON and other branches of the Anglican movement for reconstruction, in turn, reacted to the appointment of Bishop Chamberlain as a “serious mistake”. GAFCON also claimed that the Church of England had violated the Lambeth I.2016 resolution, which stated that the clergy were not allowed to enter into civil partnership. GAFCON stated that the clergy are allowed to enter into same-sex civil partnerships if they are willing to give their confidence to their bishop that they are not sexually active. This practice is permitted in the Church of England, but is a violation of Lambeth I.10, who does not recognize this difference. ” The Church of England replied to GAFCON, and “indicated that the clergy were allowed to enter into civil partnerships and offer prayers of support to same-sex couples.” In April, 10, GAFCON announced that it plans to “appoint” a missionary bishop for conservative Christians in Europe, bypassing Anglican churches in England and Scotland. "The archbishops of Canterbury and York subsequently called for a" radical new Christianity, "which is essentially evidence that the position of the Church can be liberalized." In July, the General Assembly of the Church of England "supported the proposal to ban the practice of conversion therapy aimed at changing sexual orientation." The General Synod also voted for the proposal, which calls on bishops to consider the creation of new services to celebrate the transition of transgender people. The Archbishop of the Church of Nigeria, a member of GAFCON, “reprimanded the General Synod of the Church of England for“ false teaching ”and warned that he was in a“ serious spiritual danger ”.
In February 2017, the House of Clergy in the Church of England voted against the petition to "take note" of the report in which it was stated that marriage in the church can only be between a man and a woman, and since this petition required the approval of the whole House , it was not accepted. The archbishops of Canterbury and York called for a "radical new Christian inclusion" after the debate. In the Anglican Church in New Zealand, bishop Vaiapu openly established a gay priest, who was married to his partner, as the abbot of the Cathedral of Vayapu; The conservative Brotherhood of Confessors opposed this appointment. In October, the Hereford Diocese of the Church of England voted for support and prayers for the blessing of same-sex unions. "
In the 2018 year, in order to mark the gender transition of a person, the Bishops' Chamber invites the clergy to use the existing “Confirmation of the baptismal faith” rite. '' Although the church will not create a new rite to mark the gender transition of a person, the clergy are encouraged to use the existing '' Confirmation of the faith of baptism '' ritual, which was intended to celebrate baptism or confirm faith. In the same year, the Diocese of Christchurch of the Anglican Church in New Zealand voted to support the proposal to bless same-sex unions. In more or less such a situation in the Anglican Community and there is to this day.
The Anglican Reconstruction includes several American Anglican conservative alliances, such as the American Anglican Council and the Anglican Communion, five seminaries (Andrews Hall, Cummins Memorial Seminary, The Cranmer Theological House, Reformed Episcopal Seminary and Trinity School for the Clergy), as well as a number of missionary missions of other churches in the United States.
The Brotherhood of the Confessing Anglicans, created at the Global Conference on the Future of Anglicanism in Jerusalem in June 2008, is also worth mentioning, when it was decided that, with all due respect to the historic role of the Archbishop of Canterbury, it can no longer be a cornerstone a stone of Anglican identity. In the future it was the Brotherhood that played an important role in the Anglican reconstruction process, and in particular the creation of the Anglican Church in North America.
In North America, the Anglican Mission in America is separate from the ASCAA with 20 parishes, which until recently was nourished by the Church of Rwanda, and the Anglican Mission in Canada with 10, the Anglican Assembly in North America, composed of The churches of Nigeria with 69 parishes and 10 000 parishioners, the “American Anglican Council”, with 80 000 participants and having offices in the 36 states of the country, and which is not a separate church province, but rather a church organization, with its priests, educational institutions in frames as well as the Episcopal Church and ACSA. There was also the North American mission of the Church of Rwanda with 67 parishes, but, from 8 February 2016, all its parishes, according to a general decision, became part of ACSA.
We should also separately tell about the “Continuing Anglican Movement”, but yes, as already noted above, the topic of the next article. As a result, it can be noted that Anglican believers have a reaction to church modernism. Some of them became part of the Anglican Church in North America recognized by some churches of the Anglican Community, some remain in the Episcopal Church and the Church of England, some went into the “Continuing Anglican Movement”, which, however, has some connection with the Anglican Community, a large the part of the Anglican churches still remains rather conservative. And, despite the liberal tendencies, conservative forces also have a place to be, and therefore - until the complete liberalization of Anglicanism and the triumph of the modernist forces in the Anglican Community is far away. Nevertheless, it is far largely due to believers from other non-Western countries, acting as a kind of safe, conservative, rear for Anglicans from Europe and North America. But what will be the situation with their gradual westernization and developments in the West? The answer to this question will give time.