Anti-revolutionary Holland

The French Revolution, and the subsequent Revolutionary, and then Napoleonic, wars have battered not only France itself, but the whole of Europe. While natives of Lyon fought to death in distant Russia, the natives of London and Edinburgh died in hot Andalusia, and the color of the Russian nobility defended Baldin's bald patches and redoubts. The war did not pass in the former Great, and at that time podrasteravshuyu its power Holland, to be exact the Netherlands, and more precisely, the Republic of the United Provinces. "Republic" it was quite specific, and in fact was ruled by a monarch from the dynasty of Orange-Nassau, as the sovereign of these very provinces. Holland experienced the occupation, the annexation of a number of eastern lands, the creation of a puppet "Batavian Republic", which was replaced by the same puppet "Dutch Kingdom", later and completely annexed by the First Empire.

The French Revolution was associated with the execution of the legitimate king, a dictatorship, a bloody terror, which resulted in the lives of tens of thousands of Frenchmen: noblemen, priests, artisans and simply peasants of such rebellious regions as Vendee. The French Revolution turned into a terrifying demonstration of the power of the crowd, a massive redistribution of private property, the emigration of tens of thousands of people, and, of course, quite a few in Europe did not want the repetition of these events in their countries.

Willem I

After the liberation of the territory of the Netherlands by Russian and Prussian troops, the council of the aristocracy took control of the country, which, for reasons of expediency, decided to call on the throne the legitimate heir to the throne of the dynasty of Orange-Nassau Willem I. The country proclaimed the constitution, and following the results of the Congress of Vienna to the Independent The Principality of the Netherlands also joined the so-called. "Austrian Netherlands", which now constitute the territory of Belgium and the Netherland province of Limburg, and also as a personal possession of the monarch, Luxembourg.

The country seemed to have forgotten about the horrors of the revolutionary time, but the Belgian 1830 revolution of the year followed, caused by too much difference in the historical, social and cultural development of the northern and southern parts of the United Kingdom, and led to the creation of a more or less modern Belgian kingdom and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. At the same time, the revolution had an extremely deplorable effect on the economy. In the 1829 year, the important port of Ghent was processing 7,5 million kilograms of cotton, while in the 1832 year it was only 2 million. Because of the separation from the Netherlands, most workers lost their jobs, and the wages for the rest decreased by 70% from the 1829 level of the year. The Antwerp port ship turnover in 1829 was 1028 ships and 129 thousand tons of cargo, two times more than Rotterdam and Amsterdam combined. In 1831, only 398 ships entered the port, and trade with the East Indies was completely discontinued. In addition, the constitution of the new country was very liberal at the present time, at the time left -; in particular, the powers of the King of Belgium were significantly less than those of the British monarch at the same time.

But the "anti-revolutionary" sentiments of a significant part of the Dutch society had other roots - the liberal policy of the Dutch Reformed Church. Calvinism became the dominant religion in Holland since the 16th century, and although many Catholics and Catholic regions remained in the country (say, the entire South except Zeeland was Catholic), reforming (the continental direction of Calvinism) began to dominate the country. From the end of the 18th century, the modernist trend began to dominate in the Church, which began to strain the conservative part of believers. Some conflicts and disagreements were already immediately after the liberation of the country, in 1816, but they still had to get worse. Already since the 1840s, forces inspired by the ideas of Guillaume Grume van Prinsterrer, a consistent conservative and monarchist, a faithful parishioner of the Dutch Reformed Church, and, moreover, came from the middle class, the son of a physicist who was the main right-wing intellectual of his era . Even before the party was created, the name of "anti-revolutionaries" was fixed to its followers, exactly like a certain political power. They opposed liberalism as in the Church (the Church was then statehood) and in Dutch politics, and their slogan was “God, the Netherlands and the Orange”. One of the most important issues for early anti-revolutionaries was the issue of education. By occupying the country in 1795, the French separated the Church from the state. They did not ban Christian religious schools, but now they needed permission from local authorities, which was not always given. In addition, the issue was open to finance. For several decades, this question has caused heated debates in Dutch society, an in-depth study of "Christian and civic values" in elementary schools did not suit Protestant believers, and soon Catholics were involved in the matter. In the 1848 constitution, the item on financing education was absent, so the debate continued.

Over time, Van Princester departed from the principle of the Netherlands as a homogeneous Protestant society, and moved to the position of "souvereiniteit in eigen kring", which would be best translated as "each sphere - its sovereignty." This idea was that each area of ​​life has its own source of authority, and does not have sovereignty over others. This applied both to various spheres of society as a whole (for example, education, law, monarchy) and various groups of society, which were further divided by anti-revolutionaries into liberals, socialists, orthodox Protestants and Catholics. Therefore, for example, the family should not be considered in categories of business; similarly, neither the Church nor the state should control all spheres of society. This idea, largely caused simultaneously by the spread of the concept of “national sovereignty” from France, in which all rights were derived from the “nation”, and by the spread of the etatistic concept from neighboring Germany, according to which all rights are delegated from the state, later one of the main anti-revolutionary party, and will move even to the newly created “Christian Democratic Appeal”.

It must be said that this idea fully corresponded to the reality, and reflected the actually established division of Dutch society. Each "sphere" had its own schools (Protestant and Catholic in Protestants and Catholics, respectively, and liberals and socialists in public), their own newspapers, their trade unions and business unions, their universities, even their different favorite sports, and ... their parties. It was just such a party of the orthodox-protestant sphere that the anti-revolutionary party wanted and should have been. And she did it.

Abraham Kuiper

ARP was founded on 3 on April 1879 of the year by a young Protestant theologian Abraham Kuiper, even earlier noticed by Van Princester, who died on 19 on May of 1876. Interestingly, it became the first batch in the country. The program and the main ideas were all the same as before its foundation, but the strategy was new - it was supposed in particular to destroy the liberal-Catholic alliance, luring the Catholics to their side. I must say, Kuiper succeeded.

About our hero should tell more. Kuiper himself was born on October 29 1837 in the family of priest Jan Frederick Kuiper in Masløis, in South Holland. After receiving his primary education at home, he later graduated from the Leiden Gymnasium and entered a very prestigious Leiden University, where he studied literature, philosophy and theology, “with honor” after completing the first course in philosophy. During his time at the university, he also managed to study Arabic, Armenian, and physics, and in 1862 he received the title of doctor of theology for his dissertation concerning views on the Church of Jean Calvin and Jan Lassky. Abraham himself sympathized with the latter, who held more liberal views. In 1862, he was declared fit for the priestly service, and in 1863, he received a priestly position in Beezed, in the central part of the country. At that time, he was still a member of the modernist movement in Dutch Calvinism, but around the year of 1866, under the influence of Pete Balthus, a strong reformist and miller’s daughter who attended his parish, he became a sympathizer of the orthodox movement. Soon he begins to oppose centralization in the Church, a large role of the monarch in it and becomes a supporter of the separation of the Church from the state. In 1867, Kuyper submits a petition for transfer to a parish in Utrecht, and in 1870 - in Amsterdam, where in 1872 he founded the newspaper De Standaard, which he planned to make the main newspaper of all reformists in the Netherlands . Then he, apparently, and met with Van Prinsterer. In 1873 for the first time, he participates in the elections to the House of Representatives, from the district of Gouda, but he loses them to the conservative Willem Moritz de Brau. However, after his death the following year and subsequent re-elections, Kuyper was able to win the district and be elected to parliament, this time defeating liberal Hermann Werners van den Leoff.

Moving to The Hague (where the parliament was located), Kuyper showed great interest in political activities, writing several works that later became the ideological foundations of the Anti-Revolutionary Party. In 1877, for health reasons, he was forced to leave politics for a while, returning there the following year, with a petition against the law that is about to be adopted, which would severely hurt religious schools.

This time, Kuyper decided to take a more thorough policy, and, as already mentioned, he founded the first political party in the country, named after an established parliamentary group - before in the Netherlands there were only electoral lists of various political groups in the districts that were not held together party organization, or a firm discipline. In general, there is something funny in that a man who opposed centralization in the Church pursued a policy of strict centralization and discipline in his party. But, nevertheless, as practice shows, in the future this policy only helped him.

In the elections of 1879, anti-revolutionaries received 13 seats from 100 in the House of Representatives, although not all of the deputies elected by ARP were actually members of the party.

During this convocation, however, the number of its supporters in parliament increased to 19. The election of 1884 of the year gave 21 a seat, and in 1886 of the year they won the first place in the Senate. But the real triumph occurred only in 1887 year - the Anti-revolutionary party received the support of 31,4% of voters and 27 seats in parliament. The government formed the anti-revolutionary Eneas Makai, who was already the speaker of the parliament in the previous convocation. The government consisted of both members of the ARP and representatives of Catholics, including also two independent conservatives. Despite this, the liberal Senate blocked many initiatives of people's representatives, and as a result, the cabinet resigned ahead of schedule, and the new 1891 elections of the year brought a loss of 2% of votes, but 6 of parliamentary seats. The new ministerial cabinet was formed by the liberals. However, there is no bad without good, and the liberal-democratic dogmas of the new government, expressed in particular in the law on universal men's suffrage, were only in favor of the Anti-revolutionary party, which was strongly supported by the Dutch middle class. Almost the entire party, except for Alexander de Savornin Lohman, who was in strict opposition to the principle of “national sovereignty”, voted for him. This confrontation between Kuiper, besides, as already mentioned, introduced strict party discipline, which actually helped him in voting, and de Savornin, who denied the party principle in general, led to the creation of the “Free Anti-revolutionary Party”, in 1904, overgrown in ( Historical) Christian Union. The new party became much more aristocratic - many nobles left the ARP after Savornin - and still opposed universal suffrage, being at the same time much more anti-Catholic. Well, the story was on the Kyuper side.

At the same time, the leader of the ARP sought to make the very position of the "Protestant sphere" itself stronger. So, in 1880, he created the existing Amsterdam Free University, which was supposed to be independent both from the state and from the dominant church, going deeper into liberal trends, and also as the first Protestant university in the country. In a sense, this was true - before that, only one theological university was absolutely Protestant, and the rest founded 26 years before, while the rest were prepared, as can be seen from the example of Kuiper, the Protestant priests, were general-purpose. Soon, the new university received the first three departments: theology, law and art, as well as abundant funding from various Protestant organizations and simply caring people. A lot of donations were collected in the form of small coins, collected in the style of future American scouts, home. The university, by the way, although it has become much more secular, retains its prestige, but to this day it is exactly like the departments of theology.

At the same time, in 1886, Abraham Kuyper finally broke with the Dutch Reformed Church, thus arranging a second split in its history (the first, also conservative, was in 1834).

In 1885, he and his supporters filed a complaint against excessively liberal practices in the Church, but were not supported by the majority. As a result, the winter 1885-1886's. Kuyper actively called for the creation of a separate Church. First, 7 February 1886, broke off the parish in the small village of Kotvijk, near Barneveld, with a priest, by the way, trained at the Free University. The next, and literally the next day, was the arrival in Forthyisen, all in the same area. Over time, the number of breakaway parishes grew, and soon the Church received legal status and its own name, the “Netherlands Reformed Church (saddened),” which expressed them, in general, not a particular joy about the need for a split. Later, in 1892, the Church united with the “Christian Reformed Church in the Netherlands” that broke away as far back as 1834, forming the “Restored Reformed Church”. In the future, it is based mainly in the so-called. The “Bible belt” of the Netherlands will be one of the main pillars of the party. The new Church was also different in terms of theology. Abraham Kuyper is the ancestor of such a direction of Protestant theology, as "neokalvinizm." Unlike the "orthodox" Calvinism, neocalvinism paid more attention to the sovereignty of God over all spheres of life, over every atom and over every molecule; introduced the concept of "cultural mandate", which was understood as the mandate given by God to mankind to take care of God's creation and its development; denied the "scholastic" dualism and linear dichotomies; gave a fairly significant role to the law. Neocalvinism is still present, having its representatives in the united Protestant Church of the Netherlands, a number of more conservative Dutch Calvinist Churches, and also among Calvinists of America and Canada.

In the meantime, let's return to politics. Despite the loss of the election of 1894, with the loss of half the votes and 6 (of 21) seats in the parliament, in the elections of 1897 the party was able to recoup a few, taking 17 seats with the support of 26% of voters. But the real historical triumph came in 1901 with a win 27,4% of votes and 23 seats. And although it was less than in the legendary 1887, the party was able to form a coalition with the Catholics and the Savornin group, and Kuyper himself became prime minister.

Together with Kuyper’s rise to power, authoritarianism returned to Dutch politics. So, during the strike of the railroad workers in 1903, he showed no pity for the strikers, and, moreover, he passed several anti-strike laws in parliament. After the liberal Senate did not miss the law giving equal recognition of degrees from public and religious universities, it simply dissolved the Senate. The new Senate, with a majority in the face of religious conservatives, missed the law.

As for foreign policy, there he was the creator of the so-called. "Ethical Policy" (Ethische Politiek), which consisted in greater attention to the material development of the colonies, and created conditions for the further prosperity of the countries under the Dutch authorities. At the same time, interestingly, there was no "Dutchlandization" policy - actually, on the contrary, construction and reconstruction of mosques was financed in the same Indonesia.

The 1905 election of the year brought a loss of all 3% votes, but 8 seats. Moreover, Kuiper lost his place from Amsterdam, which was taken by a candidate from progressive liberals. The new government was again led by the liberals, but the Christian opposition (including the Roman Catholic State Party and the IHC) retained a strong influence.

In 1908, Abraham Kuiper was able to return to parliament, but the new government was already headed by his party member, Theodor Hemskerk, who was the leader of the party’s parliamentary faction at the time, and noted the fight against poverty and the introduction of vaccinations.

And in 1912, Kuyper left politics altogether, in 1913, however, he was elected to the Senate, but no longer occupying other government posts, and 8 November 1920, at the age of 83 years, died. Over the next few years, the Anti-Revolutionary Party somewhat podderastera support, and with it the place in the parliament, but still, it remained one of the leading national political forces. Thus, in 1917, the liberal cabinet of Peter Cort van den Linden agreed to consolidate equal funding of public and religious schools in the new constitution, in exchange for the recognition of a proportional rather than equal electoral system. Also, according to this, a suffrage for women was introduced.

This deprived the Anti-Revolutionary Party of the most important part of the current agenda, and in general described a new page in the country's political history. After 1917, the party has never received more than 20% votes. In the 1918 election of the year, the party received 13,4% votes, but moreover, on the 2 (13) seats more than in the last convocation. The party formed a coalition with other religious parties, headed by a Catholic, Charles Roiss de Berenbrook, who had to rake the consequences of the First World War, which affected, though indirectly, but indirectly, the Lower Lands, and also to do something about the threat of the revolution, for which the Social Democratic Workers Party. The ARP received four ministerial chairs, including the Minister of Justice for Hemskerk.

At the same time, other changes followed that changed the face of the party. In 1918, a more radical "Reformed Party" broke out, existing, and running from 2 to 3 deputies to the House of Representatives and 1 to the Senate, and still. But, and more importantly, the electorate itself has changed. The dichotomy between the traditional ARP supporters and the supporters of the Christian Historical Union from the Protestant middle class has disappeared, and it has gradually been replaced by either the Dutch Reformed Church or the Christian Reformed Church in the Netherlands, respectively.

Hendrik Cowaine

In 1922, Hendrik Colein, a Dutch officer and former defense minister, led the party, introducing in its program principles of increased attention to the army and fiscal conservatism. Together with him, the party took 16 seats in the House of Representatives and 15 seats in the Senate, while Colein himself became the Minister of Finance in the new government. At the next election, the party, incidentally, lost 3 seats, and its leader was Jan Dooner. In other elections, the party lost one more place, but continued to be part of the confessional government.

The New Breath of the Anti-Revolutionary Party was given by the Great Depression. The party, led by all the same Koleyn, began to play their positions. In the 1933 election of the year, she was able to win back 2 seats, and Kolein himself became the prime minister, leading a broad government, where in addition to the ARP, the Christian Historical Union, and the Roman Catholic state party were also representatives of the left-wing Free-minded Democratic League.

Conducting a classical economic policy, and refusing to devalue the guilder, Kolain could not end the crisis, which, however, did not prevent him in the next election to improve the result of the party, having received another 3 seats, and ultimately took 17 parliamentary seats. Colein continued his reign. However, he could not be sent for the whole period.

In 1939, his office fell, and until the occupation, his party fellow Dirk van de Geer continued, without, however, supporting the parliamentary faction of his party. But the Second World War was approaching, and already in 1940, the Netherlands was drawn into it, which lasted the entire 4 of the day. The government in exile was headed by a member of the Anti-Revolutionary Party, Peter Schurds Gebrandi, who also became the minister of colonial affairs.

Despite the fact that the same de Geer supported the conclusion of a separate peace with Germany, for which the queen retired, later returning and cooperating with the Germans, and in general the desire of these to rely on the right forces in the country, many revolutionaries actively participated in the Resistance, and at the initiative of Gebrand, Radio Orange was created, broadcasting in the country. The reasons for this, in general, were the Germans themselves - even during the war completely destroying the historical center of the largest port and one of the largest cities in the country, Rotterdam, and later establishing a puppet government, concentrating all real power in the hands of the appointed Reich Commissar of the Netherlands.

With the end of the Second World War, the war as such for the Netherlands did not end, but continued, and continued in a more bloody way. This time the far Dutch colony, East India, whose territory the Republic of Indonesia now occupies, was already blazing. The anti-revolutionary party was the only one in the country that unequivocally opposed the policy of decolonization and in support of the unity of the Netherlands Empire as the only condition for its prosperity and power. As several decades later the Portuguese president and military leader Antonio di Spinola, true, with regard to Portugal, the colonies were the only way for the Kingdom to remain a politically significant unit. Nevertheless, all other parties in the Netherlands, including the Catholic People's Party and the Labor Party, still accepted the decolonization under US pressure, and the ARP remained in rigid isolation. In the elections of 1946, the party lost 4 seats, and remained in opposition from now on.

At the same time, due to yet another church split in the Reformed Church of the Netherlands itself, the "Reformed Church of the Netherlands (liberated)" broke away from it, whose parishioners in 1948 created another Calvinist political force, known as the "Reformed Political Alliance", and became forerunner of the modern Christian Union. Nevertheless, before 1963, they could not get elected to the parliament.

In 1952, anti-revolutionaries managed to return to the ministerial cabinet, formed besides them also by the Christian Historical Union, Catholics and Social Democrats. Elle Zailstra, who held the post of party leader, became Minister of Economy. In subsequent elections, the party received 10% of votes, while benefiting from the expansion of the House of Representatives 15 seats. Subsequent 50 and early 60-ies process of boring parliamentary bickering without any particularly visible consequences continued. But a storm was coming, shaking the foundations of the Dutch society of those years, and creating the Netherlands as we know them today.

The previous policy of “pilarization” was a thing of the past. In this, the role was played by the joint participation of both Protestants and Catholics, liberals and leftists in the Resistance, which brought the members of various “spheres” closer to each other, who had not even come across before. The increased social mobility played its role, leading to new horizontal connections and blurring of old stereotypes and prejudices. The spread of the state in those areas that were previously primarily private, for example, medicine and education, also led to the destruction of "spheres". But most of all, perhaps, the active activities of the new left-wing parties and organizations, in particular, the “Dutch People's Movement”, created immediately after the war, and the “66 Democrats”, whose activities in this regard should be especially noted.

The destruction of the former religious framework also led to a decline in the popularity of the former religious parties. At the same time, left-wing Christian parties founded by people from the Catholic People’s Party (which was transformed by the RCPG) and ARP were gaining popularity. So, the success was gained by the “Radical Party”. This led to the need for closer cooperation of the remaining right-wing conservative forces (although economic leftism influenced them). As a result, already in the parliamentary elections of 1974, the Anti-Revolutionary Party, the Historical Christian Union and the Catholic People’s Party came out under the same name as the Christian Democratic Appeal (Christen-Democratisch Appèl), and in 1977, the creation of a new party was finalized. The ideology of the new party stood (and stands) on Christian values, with openness to people of all faiths who share them; Van-Prinsteror and Kuiper principle of "sovereignty of the spheres"; Catholic subsidiarity (implying decentralization at all levels, at which the center would play an auxiliary, i.e., subsidiary, not subordinating, i.e., subordinate, role); and what could be called Burkianism - adjusting to the spirit of the time, "enlightened conservatism." The party has played a strong role in Dutch politics even now, and since 1977 has been its prime minister several times.

The anti-revolutionary party played an important role in the political history of the Netherlands. In its time, created with the already existing similar sentiments and even a parliamentary group, the living embodiment of the thesis about the importance of the role of the individual in history, it was possible to overthrow the liberal hegemony of Dutch politics (up to 1887, almost all prime ministers, except for the two conservatives, were liberals) and fully represent the voice of the conservative Protestant population of the country, without falling down to squabbles with another large category of believers - Catholics, on the contrary, creating a long-term fruitful union with them, and it was caused by banal different electorate, and thus the absence of any need competition between parties.

The party alone could not hold on to the East Indies and the collapse of the colonial empire, whose pearl was, and in fact the only significant part, it was, remaining alone on the whole spectrum of political forces with frank patriotic imperial positions. Conservative positions of the party were also hit by depilation, but nevertheless, party members were able to adapt to it, and at least slow the current movement of the Netherlands along the left-liberal path.

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