Did these people sincerely believe that they could bring freedom to Russia through the regicide? By the murder of the tsar who abolished the slavery of the peasants, bestowed the Russian jury and the local government, freed the Bulgarians from the Ottoman yoke? Tsar Liberator ?!
From "going to the people" to the hunt for the king
“The regicide in Russia is very popular,” wrote the Executive Committee of “Narodnaya Volya” to Emperor Alexander III nine days after the murder of his father, Alexander II, 10 (22) in March 1881. Intimidating the new Tsar with the continuation of terror, the conspirators issued him an ultimatum demanding complete amnesty for terrorists and the holding of general elections to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly with absolute freedom of speech, press and all agitation.
What did they count on? The fact that the son of the murdered King is broken, scared and agree to these absurd demands? The fact that he will negotiate with the terrorists?
In the 1860s, the Narodnik movement originated in Russia. It set itself the task of raising the people for a revolution against the Tsar, officials, landowners, rich people, police, priests ... Hundreds of young people "went to the people" to campaign. True, even then there were cold heads who immediately called for terror, and some (like Dmitry Karakozov) did not disagree with the matter. But the majority of the Narodniks went through a period of agitation in the village, where the peasants beat many of them, and issued police to someone.
Then populists divided. Some began to preach the theory of "small deeds" - to merge with the people, live their lives and slowly enlighten them. But most did not want to wait. They decided to start hunting for the Tsar.
The main objective of the secret society "Narodnaya Volya", created in 1879, was the assassination of Emperor Alexander II. With perseverance, worthy of a better use, the People's Folk organized six unsuccessful attempts on the King, eleven innocent people were randomly killed.
Police investigations led to the arrest of many involved revolutionaries. But the core of the underground organization remained free and continued its subversive work. In the end, their activities were crowned with Cain. 1 (13) March 1881, the Sovereign was killed by a bomb on a street in St. Petersburg (where the Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood was later erected).
An hour before this, the Emperor signed a decree convening elected representatives from the zemstvos. With their explosion, the “freedom-lovers” buried the beginning of the Russian constitution.
The Interior Minister, Count Mikhail Loris-Melikov, who convinced the Tsar to sign this decree, was aware of his guilt in the insufficient struggle with the revolutionary underground and resigned. The court sentenced five direct organizers and perpetrators of the regicide (Zhelyabov, Kibalchich, Perovskaya, Mikhailova, Rysakov) to death by hanging. The defeat of the entire terrorist underground was delayed for another two years.
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