Less than a decade after World War II, as in the country that defeated Nazism, Hitler's fans appeared. The strangest thing is that the authorities practically did not fight with them.
Alternative to communism
The neo-Nazi movement, which became active in the USSR at the end of the 1970, did not appear in a vacuum. Unlike other informal political trends, it had deep roots. Suffice it to recall that about a million citizens of the Soviet Union fought against their countrymen on the side of Nazi Germany. It is not surprising that a separate stratum of post-war Soviet youth began to perceive Nazism as an alternative to Soviet power. However, at first, neo-Nazis were kept underground, and therefore we have almost no idea about their activities. Up until the start of the 1980's, only a few dozen cases of neo-Nazi antics were recorded.
The movement of the Soviet neo-Nazis 1950-1970-s was divided into two categories, which can be conditionally defined as "style" and "politics". The first, mostly high school students and young people of 18-22 years, were attracted by the aesthetics of Nazism, with its cult of a beautiful body and the burden of classical examples of art. The second, more mature people, saw in Nazism an ideological tool for their political games.
Not only imitating
The first known neo-Nazi organization in the USSR was a group of Kiev schoolchildren headed by a certain Yu. P. Yurchenko 1939, born. Young Kyivans called their community “SS Viking”. They set themselves ambitious goals: building a state on the basis of a symbiosis of national socialist and communist ideas. Hitler for them was, rather, just an idol. In December, 1957, a criminal case was opened against the SS Viking, but it was soon stopped due to the absence of corpus delicti.
Interestingly, the popularity of youth neo-Nazi formations was influenced by the series “Seventeen Moments of Spring” - one of the first Soviet films in which the life of the political elite of Nazi Germany was shown in such detail. For older people, the role model was not so much Hitler as his political attitude. True, having a rather vague idea of the intricacies of National Socialism, they focused mainly on one of its most important components — anti-Semitism. It was the idea of exterminating the Jews that the Russian National Party program written by Vyacheslav Solenev, written in 1957, and the People’s Democratic Party of Russia from the group of Viktor Polenov, was imbued with. However, by the 1980 years, the views of Solenev were somewhat softened: he had already urged to distinguish between "harmful and useful Jews."
The group "Russian National Socialist Party" by Alexei Dobrovolsky, which operated in Moscow in the second half of the 1950-s, can be considered a neo-Nazi. Although Dobrovolsky denied adoring Hitler, he nevertheless acknowledged that he was impressed by the "Nazi party gestures and rituals" and also the "German definition". Dobrovolsky believed that the victims of the Second World War were on the conscience not of Hitler or Stalin, but of the United States and “world Jewry,” which benefited the pan-European conflict.
Unlike many dissident associations, the Nazis were ready to engage not only in demagogy, but also in terror. For example, in 1963, in Voronezh, the activity of a group of young people who called themselves “oasovtsami-national socialists” was revealed. They not only celebrated the Fuhrer's birthday, but also carried the Wehrmacht orders found at the excavations and even intended to fight the Soviets with German weapons found there. During the search, automatic rifles, pistols and explosives were seized from them.
Sanctuary of the Margins
From the beginning of the 1980s, neo-Nazi groups began to act more liberated. So, in April 1980, the 17-year-old 10 class student Viktor Yakushev and his comrades made a picket at the Moscow synagogue. True, the ringleader later assured that this was simply a "display of interest in Jewry."
Russian Nazism 1980-x becomes the philosophy of all kinds of marginal for whom it becomes fertile ground for the expression of protest sentiments. It is no coincidence that the Soviet punks were fascinated by the Nazi ideology.
Thus, in February 1984, the note by the Chairman of the KGB of the USSR Viktor Chebrikov said: “At the same time, the spread of hostile anonymous materials in which the authors, mainly from among the youth and adolescents, used fascist symbols and spoke on behalf of so-called punks “. During the year, there were 49 such manifestations. ”
The children of high-ranking officials more and more often joined the neo-Nazi formations. Golden youth glorified Hitler and regretted the absence in the country of a strong leader and iron discipline.
In 1982, a landmark event took place - the neo-Nazis on Hitler's birthday held a mass demonstration on Pushkin Square in Moscow. In the magazine “Untouchable Stock” (for 2004), it was noted that this performance made a huge impression on both the capital intelligentsia and the Western media. The Soviet press was silent then, but in the West they wrote a lot. Including about the fascist demonstration in Kurgan, which was attended by more than 100 teenagers who sported armbands with a swastika and chanted the slogan "Fascism will save Russia!"
A special situation with the neo-Nazi movement developed in the Baltic States. Local security services simply turned a blind eye, calling Nazism "the original cultural component of the people." Back in 1969, the Tallinn ensemble Peoleo performed a line-up song of the Estonian SS legionnaires at one of the concerts. And in 1980, in the same Tallinn, after a concert dedicated to the anniversary of the liberation of the city from the Germans, a crowd of teenagers appeared in the crowd of listeners who shouted “Heil Hitler!” And showed a swastika on clothes. There was no reaction from the authorities.
Proximity to the Baltic States influenced the prosperity of neo-Nazism in Leningrad. There is evidence of hooligan neo-Nazi antics, which in June 1982 of the year spoiled most of the statues of the Summer Garden. And in 1987, a more resonant event occurred. 20 April, on Hitler's birthday, two columns of young men in black shirts with a swastika marched along Nevsky Prospect. A similar march took place in Peterhof.
Later, neo-Nazis were noted for the mass desecration of Jewish graves, and on April 25 with shouts of “Kill the Jews, save Russia!” A group of teenagers tried to destroy the Leningrad synagogue. The police of the northern capital at the same time indifferently watched the scene.
With the filing of the KGB?
The Western media often wondered why, in 1980's, a wave of neo-Nazi speeches swept across the USSR with the authorities' almost complete acquiescence. It was suggested that these actions were sanctioned by KGB structures in order to accuse the government of inaction and take power in the face of mass public outrage.
Many pointed out that the neo-Nazi rally on Pushkin Square was known in advance. For example, in Moscow schools, students were warned that 20 of April should not appear on Pushkin Square. But since the forbidden fruit is sweet, as a result, there were plenty of young people there. Especially a lot of fans. According to eyewitnesses, the demonstration barely started, a fight ensued between fans and neo-Nazis. The police for a long time did not react to this carnage at all and only at the end of the pro forma detained several fans and Nazis.
Here is what one of the representatives of the youth movement of the Luberians said: “We arrived at Pushkin. Here a man in civilian clothes approached us and said: “Now the pacifists will gather, the Nazis will gather. Guys, we need to overclock. " When the fight was in full swing, the police began to selectively drive the young people on the bus. And to one of ours they said: “So, you stand at the bus, take yours”.
Some Western Sovietologists even argued that the KGB had launched the process of “fascizing the system” for its own purposes. However, they never produced any evidence of their theory. The last "Nazi case" was recorded in 1988, when a certain Joldin was arrested in Tallinn, who was planning to create an "Estonian National Fascist Party".