Political theory of eternal nationalism

This article will review the history of the formation of nationalism of nations and ethnic groups. It will be shown that in those times when there was no nationalism as such, people, as now, defended their people, the language of the people, the customs of the people, defended their ethnicity, like modern nationalists.

Any nationalism begins with the cradle, with the first word spoken in the national language, with the first song, sung in the language of its people. From early childhood, a person perceives himself as part of a certain people, part of a nation, part of an ethnos. In childhood, a person teaches the history of his people, teaches the fundamentals of the faith / religion of his people, and teaches the traditions of his people. In this article we will reveal how the understanding of his people developed from early times.

In the days of Hellenism, even before the emergence of such a thing as nationalism, people divided everyone into strangers and their own. So the Greeks called themselves the Hellenes, and strangers barbarians, pointing to a lack of understanding of their language. Later, the Romans adopted the same division. So the Romans called barbarians: Sassanid, Dacian, Phoenician, and others. In this case, we can talk more about civil nationalism. For later in the Renaissance Dante Alighieri in the treatise "Monarchy" justifies the expansionism of Rome by the fact that he carried other peoples his legislation (right), it can be concluded that the "Roman nation" of Rome was a concept rather legal, but it is a convention, because the very concept of "nationalism" was not. At the same time there were attempts to centralize the population of the empire through the authorities and the common pantheon, with a single language.

Almost the same thing could be seen in Asia, because in China they believed that the best people live only in the Middle Kingdom, moreover in the center, the farther from this “center”, the more “wild” and “uncultured” people.

In India, a more religious understanding of the nation, for everything is determined by the varna system, as the priests' priesthood is at the top, and at the very bottom are slaves and strangers.

From the given examples it is clear that the initial understanding of the nation was close to the modern concept of civic nationalism, while even civil nationalism did not make Rome united, many ethnic groups made themselves felt, for even the common Latin language sometimes had its own characteristics (folk Latin).

With the fall of Rome in Europe, there was a rethinking of the division into someone else’s / his own and had its own characteristics. Religious law prevailed, people were divided into co-religionists and heretics. A special example can be put crusades, when the Europeans went to the Holy Land to fight with a single enemy, but everything was not so smooth, because they did not go together and there were many conflicts that have their roots, some of them are associated with protonationalism. With all this, in an attempt to create a single European (Christian nation), a single common language, Latin, was used.

In order to preserve the native language, the first national ideas appeared. Renaissance writers departed from the use of the Latin language, and used national languages. On this basis in Italy, the views of such thinkers as Petrarch, Renzi (Cola di Rienzo) and Machiavelli were formed. In France, where the national consciousness was associated with the name of Joan of Arc, with 1539, laws and orders were issued in French.

A good example is the Holy Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages, it was a flourishing diversity of folk and tribal life, which prevented the frozen and dead uniformity. A citizen of the Holy Empire, thus, only partially revealed his national identity in the universal Christian idea. In part, it was rooted in its people-tribal affiliation, its language, customs, and living space, which marked these tribes and peoples. We are talking about Christian Saxons, Franks, Lombards, Lotarians, and others.

According to M. Mann, nations could not have emerged until the beginning of the Western democratic revolutions, which made the masses a major player on the political scene. This is due to the fact that originally the monarchies formed the nation. Take as an example Spain, with a large variety of ethnic groups, it was difficult to maintain unity. Castile, Leon, Galicia, Basque, Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, etc., everywhere had their own customs, such diversity was unprofitable for monarchs, and if we also take into account the fact that the Spanish monarchy belonged to Naples and the lands of today's Holland, nationalism was is harmful.

So nationalism was invented by the French revolutionaries, immediately taking in their hands, overthrowing the monarchy, declaring themselves to be a single nation, forgetting who the Gascon and who was the Aquitanian. So began to blur the boundaries between the peoples of the state. So the people of France, who spoke different dialects and had excellent traditions, became one people. So you can see not only a political revolution, but also a revolution in people's minds. Previously, all the people united in themselves only the monarch, united power fastened Normandy with Champagne. Now the people themselves are united, without a king. But with the development of left-wing ideas, the nationalism of the left, uniting the people of one country, became the nationalism of classes. So nationalism gradually became international, precisely because of such tendencies, this ideology ceased to be a weapon of the left.

Later, supporters of the monarchy were able to adopt nationalism, taking it away from ideological opponents. So the Spanish nation began to form, on the basis of the Iberian lands subordinated to the king of Spain, which for this reason was different from the Portuguese nation subordinate to its king.

Great Britain formed its nation, the Italian nation was slowly forming. The first nations were formed within the states, and more precisely, under the authority of one or another monarchical house. Against this background, it is appropriate to show an example of a quote, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808 - 1873): “In Europe, there are 30 million French, 15 million Spaniards, as many Italians, 30 million Germans and 20 million Poles. I wanted to turn each of these nations into a separate nation. ” On the basis of the principle of nationality, he wanted to achieve a revision of the European borders established by the 1815 treaties and the accession to France of lands on the left bank of the Rhine.

Nationalism can be called a double-edged sword, because they received not only the strengthening of the crown of the monarch, but also the opposite. So the Ottoman Empire could not maintain unity within the country, which the Slavs took advantage of. Rising up, the Slavs received the support of brothers by blood, language, faith. Or an example with Russia, when, helping the brothers of the same faith in the Balkans, they could not fully consolidate the Brothers in the west, calling themselves "Defenders of Slavism."

Not the buzz of rumors passed among the people, 
The message was not born in our kind -
That ancient voice, then voice over:
"The fourth century is already at the end, -
It will be completed - and the hour will strike! ”
And the vaults of ancient Sophia,
In the renewed Byzantium,
The altar of Christ will shine again.
Fall on him, O king of Russia,
And stand up as a Pan-Slavic king!

FI Tyutchev.

So Ernst Bernard Haas (1924 - 2003) gave a few concepts

Liberal nationalism, according to Haas, sees the nation as a fraternal community, with the goal of realizing the rights and freedoms of individuals and thereby promoting happiness for all. Naturally, liberal nationalism is closely connected with the ideologies of progress, both spiritual and material.

Jacobin nationalism differs from liberal in that it prescribes the community to spread and implant liberal nationalism among other nations.

Michael Mann (1942) on the stages of nationalism

The first stage is before the 1870s. - Mann calls militaristic. Military rivalry required an unprecedented increase in taxes and the expansion of military conscription, which primarily affected the lower classes. Excluded from political citizenship, they began to demand political representation as a “people” or a “nation”.

The second stage - industrial - continued from 1870's. before the First World War. He was distinguished by two features. First, the concept of popular sovereignty eventually spread to subordinate classes. This was the result of their involvement in politics thanks to the development of industry, commerce and commercial farming. Secondly, the economic functions of the state have expanded - it took up the creation of means of communication for the industry - the construction of canals, roads, including railways, post offices, telegraph facilities, and schools.

The third stage - modernism, - according to Mann, begins after the First World War. By this period, most of the old authoritarian and semi-authoritarian regimes left the scene, and with them the means of traditional centralized control over the masses. Conservatism split into a parliamentary and authoritarian radicalism of the right, and each of these areas began to look for its own way of dealing with popular sovereignty. The radical right far surpassed traditional conservatives in the ability to mobilize the masses from top to bottom.

Next, take a look at the difference between civil and ethnic nationalism. It will be important, because it will help to understand the specifics of nationalism in the modern world. This division of nationalism is easier to trace the example of Europe.

Western: (civil) nationality determined by citizenship (Europe west of Germany.)

Eastern: (ethnic) nationality is determined by kinship, language, culture (Germany and countries east)

So it becomes clear why in France the Negroes are also French, and in Russia the nationalists resent the fact that people of non-Slavic appearance belong to the Russian nation. Especially these concepts are different in the case of Korea, when one ethnic group is conditionally divided into two nations, or Swiss citizens consist of more than three ethnic groups, consider themselves to be one nation.

Anthony Smith (1939): The Concept of Civic Nationalism

According to Smith, civil nationalism is no less cruel and uncompromising than ethnic nationalism. Civilian nationalism demands, as a price for obtaining citizenship and its benefits, the surrender of ethnic community and individuality, the transfer of the ethnic religion to the private sphere, the marginalization of the ethnic culture and the heritage of minorities within the borders of the national state.

While reading the article, it will be noted that one person can simultaneously belong to two nations at once. The example of Spain was given many times, we use it again. So the Catalan in the world may be called Spaniard, pointing to his Iberian origin, but in Spain he may indicate that he is Catalan, pointing to his regional origin. Two types of nationalism, micronationalism and macronationalism. Macro / Micro is one of the main scourges of the modern world, so resisting globalization, people, in opposition to universal unification, exalt their uniqueness. So it is only in Western Europe to see the revival of the Celtic peoples and their struggle with all English, as Scottish attempts to leave the UK and the growth of the Irish language in Ireland. Residents of Andalusia Catalonia and the Basques are raising their heads in Spain. One can cite as an example the many separatist regions only in Western Europe Brittany, Flanders, Valonia.

From the whole article it is clear that at all times there were two tendencies to unite people in a nation, and to divide people into nations. We can cite as an example attempts to create over states like the EU, or corporations, which today can talk on an equal footing with states, destroying national and ethnic components, small ethnic groups stand a bone in their throats, not allowing themselves to be ground, or vice versa, they unite on a voluntary basis, creating sometimes more than even macronation. Separate ethnic groups were able to survive the "legal" "nationalism" of the Romans, religious in the Middle Ages, monarchical and liberal democratic, and even pan-nationalism (such as Panslavism and Pan-German, differences are visible in the example of Bavaria and Brandenburg). We can only choose what will be the first word of future generations, what will be the first song, and in what language. Part of what we will be, part of which nation, part of which ethnic group. The history of which people a person learns in the first place, and will perceive in his history, the basics of which religion / religion he will perceive, which traditions the people will take for their own.

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Vladislav Kochkin

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