“There is no bread - let them eat cakes,” exclaimed Marie Antoinette, demonstrating the complete lack of information about the need in which people live. And paid for it with life.
However, the last queen of France did not utter a famous aphorism, they attributed this to her. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who mentioned the episode in his "Confession", can be safely considered a participant in the information war of the time.
Austrians Marie-Antoinette did not like the French. Rough jokes were told about her and it was believed that the foreigner was indifferent to the local population, did not know about the starving peasants and kept the king under his thumb. In particular, they said that it was her who had in mind the forerunner of the Great French Revolution, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, when he wrote in his Confession (1776 - 1770) about a certain princess who responded to the remark that the people had no bread, indifferently threw: "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche" (Let them eat brioche).
Brioche is bread made from expensive flour. Replacement for cakes occurred later and no longer in France, but when the aphorism scattered around the world.
Phrase researchers come to the conclusion that Marie Antoineta could hardly have been its author. At least because Rousseau made his recording a couple of years before 1770, when the Austrian princess came to Paris to get married and ascend to the French throne.
In addition, Marie-Antoinette herself was engaged in charity work and sympathetically treated the poor. So the expression was somewhat inconsistent with her character.
But, as you know, the weapon of information wars is not at all true, but a believable lie.
In February, 1917, someone skillfully started a rumor about a catastrophic shortage of bread in Petrograd, which was not even a trace - the interruptions were caused by the disruption of the freight traffic schedule due to snowdrifts. Bread riots, which arose from scratch, led to the king's abdication from the throne.
Because of the rumor about the golden toilet of Yanukovych, the trusting and stupid crowd smashed their own country to pieces. But the toilet was never found.
The Americans confidently told the world about the weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, and the world ceases to object to smashing a foreign country. And again, the search for the main cause of the invasion is in vain.
There were also many rumors during the Great French Revolution. And one of them had to turn the people against the queen so that the beheading of a young beautiful woman would be perceived as a fair retribution, and not as a too cruel punishment for sins, besides not committed. Not as legalized murder, which, in fact, was this penalty.
But in the case of the aphorism about expensive brioche instead of cheap bread it is still worse and more indecent. For if Marie-Antoinette even said that, it would testify, rather, about her care for the hungry, and not about the carelessness of the queen, corrupted and distant from the people. And that's why.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in contrast to the insane crowd, could not but know that the law of that time ordered French bakers to sell briochets at the price of bread when it ended. And it was directed precisely against starvation riots, as bakers preferred to bake expensive brioche to get more profit.
In the phrase "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche" there is no frivolity - it contains a perplexity of a legally literate person who is well acquainted with the problem. Its real meaning can be formulated as:
“Why don't people buy brioches when bread runs out? No one should starve, because we have adopted a special law to make clever bakers bake enough bread. ”
Unfortunately, no one is interested in the truth during the rebellion that stirs the blood, be it the Great French Revolution, the Great October Revolution, or Maidan. The information wars of the 18th century differ little from the modern ones.
Of course, I have listed far from all the informational wars that humankind has led in its history - I forgot about some, I don’t know about any.
Do not remind?