“Gorky’s miserable behavior after returning from Italy to the death I attributed to his delusions and stupidity. But 20's recently published correspondence gives impetus to explain it below that: self-interest. Once in Sorrento, Gorky was surprised to find no world glory around him, and then no money (he had a whole courtyard of servants). It became clear that after money and the revival of fame, it was necessary to return to the Union and accept all the conditions. Here he became a voluntary captive of Berry. And Stalin killed him for nothing, from reinsurance: he would have sung 37 year ”
Alexander Solzhenitsyn “GULAG Archipelago”
Last year, when it became known that 2018 declared the year as Solzhenitsyn’s year (100 marks its anniversary this year), the communists, who hated the man who revealed the truth about the cannibalistic nature of their regime, immediately began to demand that 2018 be declared the year the person who glorified this very essence - Maxim Gorky (he is Alexey Maksimovich Peshkov). Well, perhaps worth talking about it. Although the anniversary date itself has passed (Gorky’s fans celebrated it this spring), this story will not lose relevance. I believe that it is useful for our contemporaries to know who he is, this “proletarian writer” whom the communists tried to impose on us and whose 150 anniversary was recently celebrated by them. The heirs of the Bolshevik executioners tried to impose "the year of Gorky" on Russia, but nothing came of it.
I tried to figure out who he is and what his meaning is. Gorky is a writer known from “Childhood” - this is the name given to his “autobiographical” story, which has been studied for a long time in literature classes at school. Soviet children were taught that Gorky was “a great writer, a classic of social realism,” and so on. And from a young age, all these dankos were sewn into the subcortex of consciousness, izergili and falcons with bangkas. And what about the reality?
Gorky is a writer whose value inflated first the democratic-revolutionary party (according to Shafarevich - “small people”), and then the Soviet power. At the beginning of 1900, he was promoted to academician - although his literary merit was very modest at that time. But “small people” insisted. Gorky was made an academician (he voted against, including the president of the Academy v.kn.Konstantin). The Sovereign learned about this - and insisted on depriving Peshkov of the title of academician. The command was fulfilled. In protest, Chekhov and Korolenko refused to be academicians.
Gorky actively promoted and promoted in the then kreaklovskoy environment. With a voluptuous sigh, “Let the storm come soon!” The storm broke, it did not bring anything good to them. I will note that the Bolsheviks ruthlessly sifted out of Russian literature everything that did not lead to Gorky and social realism, the founder of which he was proclaimed. But Gorky is really the author of a shallow, ordinary writer, of which there were many then. But he was his “small people”, was one of them. He was a member of the Bolshevik Party, was friends with Lenin and other leaders. Then, however, for a while, he quarreled with the Bolsheviks, but returned again to praise the "construction of socialism" carried out by the slave labor of prisoners of the Gulag. There are no meanings in it. Nothing he seriously affected. I would like to quote from the diary of the aforementioned V.Kn.Konstantin Konstantinovich (known under the pseudonym of K.R.) about the play “At the bottom” by Gorky:
“If art should pursue aesthetic goals, then the play does not positively meet this condition. On the stage for four actions mud, drunkenness, selective abuse. Sometimes it becomes even embarrassing, it seems, they are about to start doing things that are not positively good to look at, but will have to get up and leave. True, the old man Luka brings in a somewhat lively stream, but very briefly, and the play ends as disgustingly cynical as it begins. ”
Better not to say.
Historian Yevgeniy Antonyuk пишет:
He became the first Russian writer, very carefully and carefully creating his image. Gorky spoke in a special way, he made sure that his manners were similar to those of the intrigues, he dressed in a special folk style. Everything about him should have testified that he came from the bottom of the people. Gorky's work on the image led to the fact that among the beginning writers and admirers of Gorky a whole subculture of “submaximers” originated, which imitated the idol in clothes, manners, and special pronunciation. Of course, there were those who did not believe Gorky. Hesitant to him before the revolution, Chukovsky wrote: “As you wish, but I do not believe in his biography. The son of a craftsman? Tramp? Has Russia proceeded on foot? I do not believe. In my opinion, Gorky is the son of a consistency official. ” Bunin also testifies that various rumors circulated about Gorky: “The conviction was very common that he wrote completely illiterate and that someone was correcting his manuscripts.”
But let's look at it in a little more detail, but tezisno. I chose a number of points that are very indicative of a portrait writer.
1. The accomplice of terrorists
Gorky gave the terrorists his Moscow apartment to shelter the terrorists there and to make bombs by them. He was aware of what they needed and knew perfectly well. what are they doing there. Anna Geifman in her work “The Revolutionary Terror in Russia. 1894 - 1917 ”writes:
“Gorky donated large sums of money to the SR and Bolshevik militants, and also provided his Moscow apartment for use by militants as shelter and for making bombs.”
In 1905, Bitter wrote to his wife:
“The Russian revolution began, my friend, with which I sincerely and seriously congratulate you. Killed - do not be confused: the story is repainted in new colors only by blood ”
2. The enemy of Russia and the Russian monarchy
He took an active part in organizing and conducting an attempted armed coup in Russia in January 1905. Gorky was the largest sponsor of the Bolsheviks, earning a lot of money on his literary works. He hated the Russian sovereign, the martyr Nicholas II, calling him “the most incompetent of people,” “bastard and murderer,” “the nastiest of all the bastards of Europe,” he was not ashamed of expressions.
3. The opportunist and justifier of Stalin's terror
Gorky himself, it is worth noting, was a man who wrote about the “people's sufferings”, pursuing one goal - to earn money, live well, have a lot of money, eat hearty, sleep gently and not work. He loved a beautiful and luxurious life, was one of the richest people of his time. Leonid Andreev complained to Chukovsky that he tried to travel with him in Italy on one train and almost went bankrupt, how expensive Gorky preferred to travel. And here is another case. In the winter of 1903, Krasin met with Savva Morozov, organized by Gorky, regarding the financing of the Bolshevik Party. That's what recalled about her writer himself:
“The manufacturer’s business talk with a professional revolutionary who incited class enmity was as interesting as it was short. At first, Leonid spoke at length and in a “popular” form, but Morozov, looking at him with sharp eyes, quietly said:
“I read this, I know, sir.” I agree with that. Lenin is a keen-minded man.
And he eloquently looked at his ... watch ... Then something like this happened:
- What is the amount you need? - asked Sawa.
- Let's more.
Sawa spoke quickly.
- My personal income is an average of sixty thousand annually, sometimes, of course, up to a hundred. But a third usually goes to various trifles, scholarships and so on. Twenty thousand a year — pretty?
- Twenty-four is better! Said Krasin.
- Two per month? Good with.
Leonid smiled, looking at me, and asked:
- Is it possible to get immediately in a few months?
- For five, about?
- Let's think.
And, smiling broadly, he joked:
“You take Gorky more, or else he hires a cab driver for two-hryvnia, and a fifty-thousand dollar cab driver gives for tea”
He himself came from a wealthy merchant family and in his blood was a craving for a rich existence and luxury. He left Russia and lived in his estate on Capri, where he lived as if in paradise and needed nothing, and even received guests from Russia. But when the fame died away and the money ran out, he left Russia shortly after he quarreled with the Bolsheviks who had seized power, Gorky thought that it was time to return to Russia and enter the service of the Soviet regime in order to live again as he used to live. In Bolshevik Moscow, Gorky and his family settled in the Ryabushinsky mansion (where he lived from 1932 until his death), and after his death his daughter-in-law lived in him. Since 1965, the Gorky Apartment Museum has been located there. He also had a dacha in Gorki (now the Odintsovo District).
He was the editor of the voluminous book "The White Sea-Baltic Channel named after Stalin", published in 1934 year. In it, Gorky openly does not stint on the praises of the exploitation of prisoners who were actual slaves:
"... this is a great successful experience of the mass transformation of the former enemies of the proletariat ... into skilled workers of the working class and even into enthusiasts of state-necessary labor ... The corrective-labor policy adopted by the State Political Administration ... once again proved itself brilliantly."
In addition, Gorky “justified the repressive policy pursued by Stalin by his presence on the Soviet literary Olympus. He was a world famous writer who was listened to and believed. ” (Source) Alexander Solzhenitsyn called this booklet the first book in Russian literature that glorifies slave labor.
Here we take a look at one person with whom Gorky was on good friendly terms. It - Heinrich Jagoda (Enoch Yehuda).
Berry's family was related by kinship with the Sverdlov family. Yagoda's father, Gershon Filippovich, was the first cousin of Mikhail Izrailevich Sverdlov, the father of Yakov Sverdlov, who lived in Nizhny Novgorod. Subsequently, Yagoda married Ida Leonidovna Averbakh (daughter of Yakov Sverdlov’s sister, Sophia Mikhailovna), his second cousin. They had a son Garik (1929 - 2003, Israel). Ida Averbakh's brother was the Soviet writer Leopold Averbakh, who was derived in “The Master and Margarita” as a critic of Latunsky. Ida Averbakh was a lawyer and served as an investigator to the prosecutor's office. In 1936, OGIZ publishing house published her work “From Crime to Labor”, dedicated to the activities of corrective labor camps in the USSR. The work was edited by the USSR Prosecutor Andrey Vyshinsky himself and with his foreword. In it, Averbakh characterized the Gulag as an ideal means of "turning the most nasty human material into full-fledged active conscious builders of socialism."
“The alteration of a hostile and unstable consciousness is best accomplished by concentrating the work on gigantic objects that amaze the imagination with their grandeur”.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who mentioned and actively quoted Ida Averbakh in the GULAG Archipelago, indicated that she planned to defend her dissertation on the problem of "changing consciousness in camp conditions." 16 June 1938, Ida Averbach, was shot at the Kommunarka training ground (her husband was 15 in March of the same year, in the Lubyanka prison).
Living in Nizhny Novgorod, Yagoda met Yakov Sverdlov himself. Yagoda's acquaintance with Maxim Gorky, with whom they later maintained friendly relations, refers to the pre-revolutionary years.
Under the leadership of Yagoda, the Gulag was established and the network of Soviet labor camps increased, the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal began by prisoners. 36 of prominent writers led by Maxim Gorky was attracted to cover this construction. According to the American historian Richard SpensYagoda managed to establish illegal deliveries of wood from the Gulag to Canada, the profits from which went to his Swiss account, which remains unclaimed until now.
“Returning to Berry, it is worth saying that his relatives are currently living in the United States. They discovered that Yagoda had an account in a Swiss bank where he allegedly saved money for years and which he, of course, could not use because of the sudden collapse of his career in 1937. So the account still exists, and there is money on it. How many? Relatives do not speak, but I do not insist. They expect that sooner or later they will get the money. However, the problem is that Yagoda was a Soviet official for most of his life. Where did this money come from? If they are stolen from state funds, and this is most likely true, the Russian government can claim them. Relatives can not yet access these funds - the bank tells them that they must confirm their family ties with the account holder. They are in great-like affinity with Yagoda, and Yagoda had a son whom they could not find. They just turned to me with a question if I didn’t know anything about this son. But I have no idea what happened to him, and I do not know anyone who can know this. ”
When searched Berry, according to protocol, films (11 pieces), postcards and photographs (3904 pieces) of a pornographic nature, rubber artificial penis, etc. were found. It also indicates a huge number of items of clothing and other property in large quantities. Although, if you think about which of the party bosses then did not have such a thing? It is believed that Gorky's daughter-in-law Nadezhda Peshkova (“Timosha”), the widow of the writer's son, Maxim Alekseevich Peshkov, was Yagoda’s mistress. It was rumored that the writer himself was in love with Timosha. At the 1938 process of the year, in response to the charge of killing Maxim Peshkov, Yagoda pleaded guilty and claimed that he did it for “personal reasons” - because of falling in love with his spouse. The poet Vladislav Khodasevich who knew Peshkov well and many modern researchers find this quite plausible. Lydia Nord, in recollections of Tukhachevsky, cites the following point from the conversation of the marshal with Gamarnik, after the dismissal of the first deputy defense secretary:
- The women have let you down - This is your blonde, Shurochka. And „merry widow“ - Timosha Peshkov.
- With Skoblina I broke several years ago, - replied Tukhachevsky, - and Nadezhda Alekseevna was more courted by Yagoda than I.
Marfa Peshkova, daughter of Hope and daughter-in-law Lavrentiya Beria, categorically denied any connection between her mother and Berry.
In April, the 2015 of the Year, the Supreme Court of Russia declared Heinrich Yagoda to be not subject to rehabilitation, referring to the federal law on the rehabilitation of 1991.
In 1929, Gorky, accompanied by one of the leaders of the OGPU, Gleb Bokiya, visited the Solovki Special Purpose Camp, and in the summer of 1933, a writer's tour was organized on the newly built Belomor-Baltic Canal. The book “Channel named after Stalin” with full confidence can be attributed to the number of the most false and hypocritical works of literature. “Particularly humiliating in this whole story was the role of Gorky. He was required not only to justify the use of forced labor, but to bless the very existence of the camp system, which he did. ”
During the years of the raging red terror, he wrote:
“I explain the brutality of the forms of revolution by the exceptional cruelty of the Russian people. The tragedy of the Russian revolution is played out among the "semi-wild people."
“When the leaders of the revolution are accused of“ stars ”- a group of the most active intellectuals - I consider this accusation as a lie and slander, inescapable in the struggle of political parties or - in honest people - as a conscientious delusion”.
"The recent slave has become the most unbridled despot."
In 1922, he wrote:
“Russian people are exclusively - just as exclusively as the Englishman's sense of humor - is characterized by a feeling of particular cruelty. <...> I outlined - as I understand it - the environment in which the tragedy of the Russian revolution was played out and played out. This is the environment of semi-wild people. I explain the brutality of the forms of revolution by the exceptional cruelty of the Russian people. <...> A revolution accomplished by an insignificant - quantitatively - a group of intelligentsia, led by several thousand workers who were brought up by it, this revolution pushed the whole mass of people into the steel plow so deeply that the peasantry can hardly return to the old forms of life and dust; as the Jews, brought up by Moses from Egyptian slavery, the semi-wild, stupid, heavy people of Russian villages and villages will die out and they will be replaced by a new tribe - literate, reasonable, vigorous people. In my opinion, this will not be a very “nice and pretty Russian people,” but it will be - finally - a business people, incredulous and indifferent to everything that does not directly relate to their needs. ”
Gorky hated the Russian peasantry and the countryside. "In the system of views of Gorky, the peasant personified all the negative properties of human nature: stupidity, laziness, earthiness, narrow-mindedness." The tramp, a beloved Gorky type, coming from a peasant environment, towered over it and denied it with all its existence. The clash of Chelkash, the "old wounded wolf", the "avid drunkard and the clever, courageous thief", with the "cowardly, weak and insignificant peasant Gavrila" vividly illustrates this opposition. Historian Yevgeniy Antonyuk writes:
Gorky always disliked Russian peasants, considering them to be wild Asian barbarians who oppose elementary progress and live in their wretched little world, where there is no place for great things.
5. Fornicator and adulterer
Being officially married to his first wife, he openly cohabited with actress Maria Andreeva and called her his “wife,” openly traveled with her to America for money on terror. However, when American bankers learned that Andreeva was not his wife, but he was married to another, then they stopped giving him money. 14 April 1906 on the front page of the newspaper World there were two photos. Under one of them, the “Gorky Family” was signed, under another there was an image of Andreeva with the following signature:
“The so-called Madame Gorky, who really is not Madame Gorky at all, but the Russian actress Andreeva, with whom he has lived since the separation from his wife several years ago.”
After the information appeared in the American press that the writer arrived in the USA with his mistress, while his legal wife stayed at home, Gorky was “asked” from several hotels, and he and Andréeva had to settle in the private house of his spouses, Martin. (Source)
“We can recall his increased sexuality, reflected in his work, noted by many of his contemporaries and was in mysterious contradiction with many years of severe chronic disease.” You can also recall his other numerous marriages, hobbies and connections (sometimes fleeting, proceeding in parallel), which accompanied his entire writing path. There were rumors about the feelings of the writer to the wife of his son. Also, Gorky had a long relationship with Mura Budberg (Maria Ignatievna Budberg, in his first marriage - Benkendorf, nee Zakrevskaya), who was his personal secretary. Their relationship continued from 1920 to 1933 years, she was his actual “wife”. Budberg was previously the lover of the English diplomat and intelligence officer Robert Bruce Lockhart, then writer HG Wells (she renewed her relationship with 1933 in the year after moving to London and they lived together until the writer died in the 1946 year, they never married).
During the First World War, he actively campaigned for the defeat of Russia in the war. He endorsed fraternization at the front, openly expressed the hope that “the damned war, initiated by the greed of the commanding classes, would be terminated by the common sense of the soldiers, i.e. democracy. " In the articles of Vladimir Burtsev, "Either we, or the Germans and those with them," "Do not defend M. Gorky," "My answer to Gorky," spoke about those who helped the Bolsheviks "to do the work of disintegrating Russia," and now "working on the disintegration of Russia and the development of anarchy in it hand in hand with Leninists ”. In the list of names of the Bolshevik leaders given below, Gorky was in twelfth place. Burtsev explained that the writer "was the inspiration for such a defeatist newspaper, like Novaya Zhizn." The anti-war Chronicle, the brainchild of Gorky, was also defeated. In reports from the Petrograd Security Department to the Police Department, she was described as a journal of "Bolshevik, and therefore defeatist, character." The authors of the report suspected that Gorky "leads through Finland to relations with Russian defeat emigrants living in Sweden and Norway." In the article "In Petrograd during the War," R. Arsky wrote that Gorky had conceived the creation of an "internationalist and defeatist newspaper, which would not formally be attached and not associated with the party, but in fact would carry out revolutionary and defeatist slogans."
But do not forget that the Bolsheviks themselves needed war in order to seize power in the country. Take a look at the man who became the murderer of the Emperor and his family, who seized power in Russia and killed millions of people. This is Lenin. Just look at what he thought about a possible war. He really wanted her and waited. Referring to the resolution of the Basel Conference 1912 of the year, Lenin formulated the slogan:
"The transformation of the modern imperialist war into a civil war is the only correct proletarian slogan ..."
He needed war, it was necessary for the fulfillment of his black and vile purposes. In January (later than 25 of the year) 1913, Lenin wrote to Gorky from Krakow in Capri:
"The war between Austria and Russia would be very useful for the revolution (throughout Eastern Europe), but there is little likelihood that Franz Josef and Nikolasha would give us this pleasure."
When the war began, he literally exulted:
“In each country, the struggle with its government, leading an imperialist war, should not stop at the possibility of the defeat of this country as a result of revolutionary agitation. The defeat of the government army weakens this government, contributes to the liberation of the peoples enslaved by them and eases the civil war against the ruling classes. As applied to Russia, this provision is especially true. Russia's victory entails an intensification of the world reaction, an intensification of the reaction within the country and is accompanied by the complete enslavement of the peoples in the areas already occupied. Because of this, the defeat of Russia under all conditions is the least evil. ”
So Lenin needed war, he wanted her to use for his own purposes.
In the 1929 year, at the opening of the Second All-Union Congress of Militant Atheists, the writer said that "in the love that the clergy preach, Christians, there is a tremendous amount of hatred towards man." Maxim Gorky was one of those who signed the letter asking to destroy the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. Back in 1917, in "Untimely Thoughts," he wrote:
“I have never repented in anything or in front of anyone, because I have organic disgust for this. And there is nothing for me to repent. ”
Little Alexey, in spite of his grandfather Kashirin, shredded his beloved calendar and cut off the faces of the saints with scissors. In his autobiography, Peshkov noted that in childhood he did not like to go to church, but his grandfather forced him to go to church by force, and he didn’t mention it at all. Historian Yevgeniy Antonyuk пишет:
“Gorky never mentions his godparents, and the Kashirin family was devout and the godparents at that time played a significant role in the life of a child, especially an orphan.”
December 12 1887 in Kazan unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide. According to the rules of that time, according to the decision of the Kazan Spiritual Consistory, he was sent to the parish priest for an explanatory conversation. However, Alexei Peshka defiantly refused to communicate with the priest and was excommunicated for four years for this, which he was very proud of and even wrote mocking rhymes about it.
One of the American newspapers during his visit to the United States wrote:
“The country has never experienced such shame and humiliation as this crazy Russian anarchist awards her, who by nature is devoid of moral sense and strikes everyone with her hatred of religion, order, and finally, of people.”
Moreover, Gorky also tried to create a “new religion”, becoming one of the founders of “God-building”. This involved in his famous Capri school. It was "an attempt to combine Marxism with religion and create a new man and a new God." She was sharply negatively received and met with hostility by Lenin, who was simply a fanatical atheist - or rather, an atheist. But he did not argue with Gorky, since he was a man useful to the party. Historian Yevgeniy Antonyuk gives a review of Count Leo Tolstoy:
Lev Tolstoy, who himself created his religious doctrine, spoke of Gorky’s ideas: “Bitter evil man. He looks like a seminarian who was forced to be made a monk, and by doing so pissed him off at everything. His soul is a spy, he has come from somewhere to the land of Canaan, which is alien to him, is looking at everything, noticing everything and reporting everything to some of his god. And God has a freak like a goblin or a watery village woman. ”
Such is the “classic”.
Communists with might and main scream that their idol does not honor, but honor the great Russian writer and patriot Alexander Isaevich Solzhenitsyn. In the days of the Gorky's jubilee, one Anatoly Ivanushkin burst out with a text in which he calls Peshkov “a lump”. “A giant”, “a writer of the Russian Land”, “a world-class writer”, etc. Consider a couple of passages from there (spelling and punctuation preserved).
Gorky went to the USA And agitated for the world revolution of the Proletariat against the bourgeoisie. And he raised money for the revolution from American bankers ...
Well, the very not funny? Peshkov raised money for the anti-Russian revolution, as American bankers knew and knew very well about the Jewish lobby in the United States, led by Schiff, who was the main anti-Russian lobbyist in the United States (Schiff actively sponsored the revolution in Russia and the anti-Russian propaganda that claimed and the Russian state allegedly organizes and supports the Jewish pogroms - which was, of course, a real lie).
Liberals destroyed Gorky Street in Moscow. Why?
And why did the communists call Tverskaya Street after the name of a weak writer who today is not interesting to anyone and even in the West everyone has forgotten about him long ago. Why was the primordial name of the street replaced by not even the last name, but the pseudonym (almost gangster nickname) of one of the enemies of Russia?
These are just some of the moments of this infamous libel. Yes, and such libel is full - that blacken Alexander Isaevich and praise Gorky-Peshkov. Red Russophobes passionately hate everything Russian and offer this accomplice to terrorists, the average author, anti-patriot, opportunist and godless man instead of the Russian patriot, veteran of the Great Patriotic War, front-line soldier, order bearer, the person who influenced Putin, the excellent writer and deep thinker Alexander Solzhenitsyn (about him there will be some more posts). But they did not succeed and fail. And I hope with this text to somehow influence people and help them understand who the communists are trying to impose on them.
As a conclusion of the text, I will quote the historian Yevgeny Antonyuk that Gorky has always been a lie:
It was probably here that Gorky’s special relationship to lies, which he did not consider to be a vice, played a role, rather the opposite. He himself loved to lie and loved people who can do it. He lied a lot, but not for some pragmatic purpose, but rather, considering it as a creative impulse. Khodasevich, who lived with Gorky in exile, recalled: “He could be said to be a caring and careful attitude to lies and liars. I have never noticed that he brought someone to clean water or to denounce a lie — even the most impudent or helpless. He often happened to tell lies himself. He did it with surprising carelessness, as if he was sure that no one could or would not want to incriminate him in a lie. ”